(b) Classical conditioning

(c) Perceptual learning

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(d) Sign learning

(e) Latent learning

102. What has been called avoidance conditioning involves a combination of the features of:

(a) Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

(b) Operant and Trial and Error Learning

(c) Insightful learning and Operant Condi­tioning

(d) Perceptual learning and Classical Condi­tioning

(e) None of the above

103. The “Aha experience’ is associated with:

(a) Classical Conditioning

(b) Insightful learning

(c) Operant conditioning

(d) Sign Learning

(e) Perceptual Learning

104. Experiments on “Latent Learning” reveal that learning can occur:

(a) Without reinforcement

(b) With reinforcement

(c) Without response

(d) Without Stimulus

(e) None of the above

105. When complete learning has taken place, the best way of responding to a situation be­comes:

(a) Temporary

(b) Permanent

(c) Haphazard

(d) Unnecessary

(e) None of the above

106. The first psychological research concerned with associative learning was conducted by E. L. Thorndike on:

(a) Animals

(b) Human beings

(c) Dogs

(d) Cats

(e) Chimpanzees

107. The theory of E. L. Thorndike reveals that the most characteristic form of learning in both lower animals and men is:

(a) Instrumental Conditioning

(b) Classical Conditioning

(c) Insightful Learning

(d) Trial and Error Learning

(e) None of the above

108. A boy who is learning to ride a bicycle will have to discard many wrong movements until he learns how to ride it perfectly. The principle underlying this process of learning is called:

(a) Trial and Error

(b) Insight

(c) Classical Conditioning

(d) Instrumental Conditioning

(e) None of the above

109. A principle in Thorndike’s theory reveals that the strength of the bond decreases propor­tionately with the non-use of a particular bond or a connection over a period of time. What is the name of this principle?

(a) Law of Effect

(b) Law of Recency

(c) Law of Disuse

(d) Law of Frequency

(e) None of the above

110. ‘Negative Reinforcement’ and ‘Punishment’ are:

(a) Similar terms

(b) Dissimilar terms

(c) Similar to some extent

(d) Similar depending on the situation

(e) None of the above

111. Negative reinforcement involves the termi­nation of a pleasant situation while punishment involves causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate:

(a) Any response

(b) Desirable Behaviour

(c) Undesirable Behaviour

(d) Any Stimulus

(e) None of the above

112. If a child refuses to carry or touch dishes for the fear of breaking them and getting punished, then it is called:

(a) Escape training

(b) Avoidance Conditioning

(c) Aversive Training

(d) Effective Reaction

(e) None of the above

113. The term SeR is usually explained as:

(a) Habit Strength

(b) Effective Reaction

(c) Successive Approximation

(d) Retroactive Inhibition

(e) None of the above

114. Imprinting is a special form of learning in which a specific stimulus-response connec­tion is established at:

(a) Childhood

(b) Early childhood

(c) Critical periods

(d) Adulthood

(e) None of the above

115. The first psychologist to term one type of rigid learning as imprinting was:

(a) Konrad Lorenz

(b) Clark L. Hull

(c) B.F. Skinner

(d) G.A. Kimble

(e) None of the above

116. “A monkey was watching a banana being placed under one of two containers but was not allowed immediate access to the same. A few minutes later, it was permitted to choose between the containers and it invariably demonstrated its memory by choosing correctly. Later, when the monkey was out of view, the experimenter placed a lettuce leaf (a less preferred food) under one of the containers. On finding the lettuce leaf instead of the preferred banana, the monkey showed signs of surprise and frustration, rejected the lettuce leaf and engaged in definite searching behaviour as if looking for the expected banana. Similar behaviour was found when the food in the goal-box of a maze experiment was changed from barnmash to sunflower seeds.”

This is an illustration of:

(a) Successive Approximation

(b) Reward Expectancy

(c) Effective Reaction

(d) Habit Strength

(e) None of the above

117. “A psychologist applied a technique which was found very much effective in case of the not-so-young children who used to wet their beds every night. These children were made to sleep on especially-designed cots which emitted mild shock as soon as they tried to wet the bed. This gradually led to the unlearning of this habit.”

This technique is popularly known as:

(a) Successive Approximation

(b) Aversive Therapy

(c) Reward Expectancy

(c) Effective Reaction

(e) None of the above

118. Which procedure involves a rationale oppo­site to the one involved in systematic desen- sitization?

(a) Flooding or Implosive Therapy

(b) Systematic Deconditioning

(c) Aversive Therapy

(d) Place Learning

(e) None of the above

119. “Sometimes the patients who are phobic to rats or snakes are suddenly made to touch live snakes or rats (which are harmless) rather than asking them first imagine the objects of their phobias. This method includes on trial learning or unlearning.” Which method is this?

(a) Aversive Therapy

(b) Place Learning

(c) Flooding or Impulsive Therapy

(d) Insightful Learning

(e) Imprinting

120. Sometimes mothers and teachers reward successively better pronunciation in their children’s speech. This is an example of:

(a) Biofeedback

(b) Successive Approximation

(c) Language Acquisition

(d) Systematic Deconditioning

(e) None of the above

121. Active avoidance learning is an operant procedure in which a particular response allows the animal to avoid:

(a) Punishment

(b) Stimulus

(c) Response

(d) Reinforcement

(e) None of the above

122. The graphic representation of the strength of response evoked by stimuli that vary in similarity to a stimulus to which the organism has been previously trained to respond is known as:

(a) Generalization Gradient

(b) Learning Curve

(c) Cumulative Response Curve

(d) Acquisition Curve

(e) None of the above

123. B. F. Skinner’s learning theory was based largely on “laboratory experiments” whereas Hull’s theory based on:

(a) Hypotheses

(b) Mathematical Deduction

(c) Experiments outside the laboratory

(d) Social Learning

(e) None of the above

124. According to Hull, habit strength (SHR) is considered as an expression of:

(a) Inhibitory Potential

(b) Excitatory Potential

(c) Associative Intensity

(d) Reaction Potential

(e) None of the above

125. Reactive Inhibition is the result of reduction in the:

(a) Drive Strength

(b) Reaction Potential

(c) Habit Strength

(d) Inhibitions

(e) None of the above

126. One of the principles of B. F. Skinner is a valuable contribution to science and mankind. This principle is applied in schools to increase the efficiency of teaching arithmetic, reading, spelling and other subjects using meticulously programmed devices in the belief that children learn much better this way than through the traditional form of teaching. What is the name of this principle?

(a) Programmed Learning

(b) Biofeedback

(c) Imprinting

(d) Successive Approximation

(e) None of the above

127. The theorists who emphasize that learning essentially involves a change in cognition and not merely the acquisition of a response are popularly known as:

(a) Gestalt Psychologists

(b) Psychoanalysts

(c) Cognitive Theorists

(d) Functionalists

(e) Structuralists

128. Which type of theory of learning emphasizes the role of perception and the changes in perception during the learning process?

(a) Cognitive Theory

(b) Sign-Gestalt theory

(c) Imprinting

(d) Conditioning

(e) Insightful Learning

129. Ayllon and Azrein, in their programme on patients at a psychitric clinic, introduced a monetary system called:

(a) Token Economy

(b) Pokerchips

(c) Barter System

(d) Give-and-take principle

(e) None of the above

130. Clark Hull’s concepts of drive reduction and incentive were borrowed by scientists investigating:

(a) Emotional Process

(b) Motivational Process

(c) Personality

(d) Perceptual Processes

(e) None of the above

131. “Token Economy” was first introduced on patients at a psychiatric clinic by two psychologists. Who are they?

(a) Maier and Seligman

(b) Dollard and Miller

(c) Dweck and Repucci

(d) Ayllon and Azrein

(e) Saligman and Hager

132. The process through which information coming from the senses is transformed, reduced, elaborated, recovered and used is called:

(a) Cognition

(b) Personality

(c) Emotion

(d) Conation

(e) None of the above

133. The extinction and alteration of disturbing emotional responses by classical conditioning is called:

(a) Behaviour Modification

(b) Generalization

(c) Discrimination

(d) Successive approximation

(e) None of the above

134. The process of learning to make one response to one stimulus and a different response or no response to another stimulus is called:

(a) Generalization

(b) Successive Approximation

(c) Discrimination

(d) Behaviour Modification

(e) None of the above

135. In Operant Conditioning, when a positive reinforcement is withdrawn following a response, it is called:

(a) Discrimination

(b) Omission Training

(c) Higher-Order Conditioning

(d) Generalization

(e) None of the above

136. Acquisition of material is the central objective of the:

(a) Class-room Learning

(b) Insightful Learning

(c) Latent Learning

(d) Imitation

(e) Imprinting

137. Social learning theory includes the pheno­mena ordinarily subsumed under:

(a) Imprinting

(b) Generalization

(c) Imitation and Identification

(d) Discrimination

(e) None of the above

138. Who viewed that modelling is much broader in scope and in psychological effect than responses implied by imitation and identi­fication?

(a) Rosenthal (1968)

(b) Bandura (1969)

(c) Jacobson (1968)

(d) Snow (1969)

(e) Taylor(1970)

139. Who is the author of the book “The Art of Teaching”?

(a) Gilbert Height (1950)

(b) Button (1972)

(c) Anttonem (1971)

(d) Brophy (1974) 147.

(e) Fleming (1971)

140. The very term “Social Learning” was first introduced by:

(a) Gestalt Psychologists

(b) Functionalists

(c) Behaviourists

(d) Structuralists 148.

(e) Psychoanalysts

141. Who is the author of the book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”?

(a) B. F. Skinner

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) W. Kohler

(d) I. P. Pavlov 149.

(e) None of the above

142. A famous learning theorist died recently. Who is he?

(a) E. L. Thorndike

(b) B. F. Skinner

(c) W. Kohler

(d) I. P. Pavlov

(e) None of the above.

143. In the book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity” (1971), B. F. Skinner widened the scope of Operant Conditioning to encompass prac­tically all:

(a) Animal behaviour

(b) Human behaviour

(c) Types of stimuli

(d) Types of responses

(e) None of the above

144. The author of the famous book “The mentality of Apes” (1925) was:

(a) E. L. Thorndike

(b) Wolfgang Kohler

(c) Clark L. Hull

(d) B. F. Skinner

(e) I. P. Pavlov

145. Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) was a/an:

(a) American Psychologist

(b) German Psychologist

(c) Spanish Psychologist

(d) Swiss Psychologist

(e) Russian Psychologist

146. The book “Mentality of Apes” carried out a number of experiments on :

(a) Insightful learning

(b) Classical Conditioning

(c) Instrumental Conditioning

(d) Trial and Error Learning

(e) None of the above

147. “Contraprepared behaviours” are those that can be learned only with:

(a) Moderate amount of difficulty

(b) No difficulty

(c) A single trial

(d) Great difficulty

(e) None of these

148. Behaviours that can be learned with a moderate amount of difficulty are said to be:

(a) Unprepared

(b) Prepared

(c) Difficult

(d) Easy

(e) None of the above

149. Taking the dogs as Subjects (Ss), Steven Maier and Martin Seligman (1976) have conducted several studies of:

(a) Token Economy

(b) High Order Conditioning

(c) Learned Helplessness

(d) Generalisation

(e) Extinction

150. Experiments on learned helpessness with human Subjects (Ss) were started in the:

(a) Early 1970s

(b) Early 1980s

(c) Early 1990s

(d) Early 1960s

(e) Early 1950s

151. An adequate adjustment of life situations is possible due to :

(a) Psychology

(b) Mind

(c) Learning

(d) Nervous System

(e) None of the above

152. Verbal learning takes place at a/an:

(a) Ideational level

(b) Sympathetic level

(c) Organic level

(d) Psychophysical level

(e) None of the above

153. When one tries to understand the concept of specific gravity, he learns:

(a) With the help of symbols

(b) With the help of images

(c) With the help of ideas

(d) With the help of clues

(e) None of the above

154. The gradual weakening of a conditioned response by repeated stimulations without reinforcement is:

(a) Extinction

(b) Generalisation

(c) Discrimination

(d) Adaptation

(e) None of the above

155. When experimentally extinguished response reappears again after a period, it is called:

(a) Generalization

(b) Extinction

(c) Discrimination

(d) Spontaneous recovery

(e) None of the above

156. Our bad habits like nail biting, bed wetting, moving the leg all the while, various ticks and mannerisms, thumb sucking, smoking, alco­holism, breast feeding in case of older chil­dren and irrelevant fears can be withdrawn by:

(a) Higher-order Conditioning

(b) Spontaneous Recovery

(c) Negative Conditioning

(d) Experimental Neurosis

(e) None of the above

157. “A mother had seen that her children did not give up the habit of breast feeding even if they were older. So she smeared quinine on her nipples. Then the children developed aversion for breast feeding.” This story illustrates the concept of:

(a) Spontaneous Recovery

(b) Higher-order Conditioning

(c) Aversive Conditioning

(d) Experimental Neurosis

(e) None of the above

158. If the unconditioned Stimulus did not evoke the Unconditioned Response, the Conditioned Stimulus would not have the opportunity to become associated with the :

(a) Unconditioned response

(b) Conditioned response

(c) Unconditioned stimulus

(d) Similar stimuli

(e) None of the above

159. I. P. Pavlov (1927) chose to study the salivary response in dogs because it can be measured precisely and age has:

(a) No effect on it

(b) Considerable effect on it

(c) Negligible effect on it

(d) Some contributions towards the develop­ment of salivary glands

(e) None of the above

160. Extinction often only temporarily suppresses to:

(a) UCR (Unconditioned Response)

(b) UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus)

(c) CR (Conditioned Response)

(d) CS (Conditioned Stimulus)

(e) None of the above

161. The phenomenon of stimulus generalization was more pertinent in the development of fear emotion on Albert, a 11-month old boy in an experiment of:

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) I.P. Pavlov

(c) Sherrington

(d) E. L. Throndike

(e) None of the above

162. Conditioning occurs due to close temporal contiguity between:

(a) The CS-UCS presentation

(b) The CR-UCR presentation

(c) The CS-CR presentation

(d) The UCS-UCR presentation

(e) None of the above

163. The interfering effects of stimulus genera­lisation can be overcome by:

(a) Generalized Discrimination

(b) Unconditioned Discrimination

(c) Conditioned Generalization

(d) Conditioned Discrimination

(e) None of the above

164. Disordered behaviours are also understood in terms of:

(a) Trial and Error Learning

(b) Conditioning

(c) Insightful Learning

(d) Latent Learning

(e) None of the above

165. The child’s learning of first words like da-da, ma-ma, pa-pa etc. are learned through:

(a) Conditioning Procedure

(b) Trial and Error Learning

(c) Learning through Insight

(d) Imitation

(e) None of the above

166. A refinement of instrumental reward condi­tioning is called:

(a) Aversion Timings

(b) Sidman Avoidance Schedule

(c) Avoidance Learning

(d) Successive Approximation

(e) None of the above

167. Thorndike’s Law of Effect was found accep­tance in theories of learning by later psy­chologists named:

(a) Hull and Skinner

(b) Pavlov and Watson

(c) Kohier and Koffka

(d) Barry and Schwartz

(e) None of the above

168. Maturation merely provides a biological pace for:

(a) Memory to occur

(b) Growth to occur

(c) Learning to occur

(d) Thinking to occur

(e) None of the above

169. Contemporary psychology of learning is an objective interpretation of association of ideas, which can be traced back to:

(a) Watson

(b) Aristotle

(c) Freud

(d) C.G. Jung

(e) None of the above

170. Who was awarded the Nobel prize in Medicine in the year 1904 for his experimental investigations into the physiology of digestion, particularly the reflex secretions of the salivary, gastric and intestinal glands?

(a) I. P. Pavlov

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) C. G. Jung

(e) None of the above

171. A conditioned response (CR) is established by a series of contiguous pairings of:

(a) UCR and CR

(b) UCS and CR

(c) CS and US

(d) CS and UCR

(e) None of the above

172. If CS is repeated without reinforcement, CR gradually:

(a) Becomes established and static

(b) Shows an increase

(c) Calls for a generalization gradient

(d) Weakens and disappears

(e) None of the above

173. Those which state the conditions under which sequences of associations tend to occur are known as:

(a) Token Economy

(b) Explanatory Laws

(c) Descriptive Laws

(d) Principle of Preparedness

(e) None of the above

174. Those which state relations of dependence between the observed variable and the antecedent conditions which are capable of being observed independently are known as:

(a) Explanatory Laws

(b) Token Economy

(c) Partial Reinforcement

(d) Autoshaping

(e) None of the above

175. While conducting his experiments, I. P. Pavlov has found that a bee had accidentally flown into his laboratory. The buzzing sound of the bee elicited the salivary response in the dog. The dog was previously conditioned to the sound of a tuning fork. Pavlov and his followers referred to this phenomenon as:

(a) Stimulus Discrimination

(b) Sidman Avoidance Schedule

(c) Stimulus Generalization

(d) Premise of Equipotentiality

(e) None of the above

176. It was Russian physiologist Sechenov who has first pointed to the reflex act as the cardinal element of behaviour and I. P. Pavlov, at the turn of the century, made it explicit in his principle of the :

(a) “Conditioned Reflex” response

(b) “Conditioned Stimulus” response

(c) Instinctive Drift

(d) Biological Constraints

(e) None of the above

177. Who stated, “Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from conditions of practice”?

(a) Wenger, Jones and Jones

(b) Kling (1971)

(c) Mc Geoch and Irion (1952)

(d) Munn (1955)

(e) None of the above

178. In the basic experiment of Pavlov on conditioning, food is the:

(a) Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

(b) Conditioned Stimulus

(c) Generalized Stimulus

(d) Discriminating stimulus

(e) None of the above

179. The process which increases the strength of the response (CR) as a result of presenting the CS in association with the US is known as:

(a) Token Economy

(b) Contiguity

(c) Reinforcement

(d) Autoshaping

(e) None of the above

180. In classical conditioning experiment, the reinforcer is not viewed as a reward for good work and reinforcement is just an inevitable arrangement of presenting the:

(a) CS accompanied by the US

(b) CR accompanied by the UCR

(c) UCS accompanied by UCR

(d) CR accompanied by CS

(e) None of the above

181. The time gap between the onset of CS and beginning of CR is known as :

(a) Biofeedback

(b) Latency of CR

(c) Mediation

(d) Instinctive Drift

(e) None of the above

182. In experiments of Classical Conditioning, as the training proceeds, CR amplitude:

(a) Increases

(b) Decreases

(c) Remains constant

(d) Is converted into autoshaping

(e) None of the above

183. A well established CR gradually weakens and ultimately fails to occur if the CS is repeatedly presented:

(a) With the reinforcement of US

(b) Without the reinforcement of US

(c) With biological constraints

(d) Without biological constraints

(e) None of the above

184. Extinction refers to CR decrement following omission of the:

(a) Incentive

(b) Food

(c) Reinforcer

(d) Contigency

(e) None of the above

185. Extinction is:

(a) Temporary

(b) Permanent

(c) Also a reinforcer

(d) A secondary motive

(e) None of the above

186. According to Pavlov, the excitatory process was supposed to be connected with the occurence of:

(a) Contiguity

(b) Biofeedback

(c) Spontaneous Recovery

(d) Reflexes

(e) None of the above

187. Classical Conditioning theory reveals that the inhibitory process (inhibition) is supposed to be connected with the non-occurence of the:

(a) Reflexes

(b) Contiguity between CR and UCR

(c) Contiguity between CS and UCS

(d) Contiguity between CR and UCS

(e) None of the above

188. In earlier experiments of withdrawal of hands from the electric shock, Wolfle (1932) had found that best conditioning was obtained when CS antedated the US by:

(a) 0.2 Seconds

(b) 0.3 Seconds

(c) 0.4 Seconds

(d) 0.5 Seconds

(e) 0.6 Seconds

189. As the CS-US time interval deviates from the optimum value of 0.5 seconds, in either direction, conditioning becomes: s

(a) Temporary

(b) Permanent

(c) Less and less efficient

(d) More and more efficient

(e) None of the above

190. A great learning theorist suggested that pseudo-conditioning may be partly involved whenever aversive stimulus (like electric shock) is used as US. Who is he?

(a) G.A. Kimble

(b) Clark L. Hull

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) B. F. Skinner

(e) None of the above

191. If reinforcement is given at regular intervals:

(a) The CR may appear at the usual time al­though the US is not presented

(b) The CS may appear at the usual time al­though the US is not presented 197.

(c) The CR may appear at the usual time al­though the UCR is not presented

(d) The UCS may appear at the usual time although the UCR is not presented

(e) None of the above

192. It is likely that word meanings are learned by way of:

(a) Operant conditioning

(b) Trial and Error Learning

(c) Insightful Learning

(d) Classical Conditioning

(e) None of the above

193. Skinner (1935) distinguished two classes of responses. These are:

(a) Positive and Negative 199.

(b) Respondents and Operants

(c) Permanent and Temporary

(d) Formal and informal

(e) None of the above

194. Razran’s early experiments on salivary conditioning among children:

(a) Show complete lack of uniformity of results

(b) Were vague having no concrete facts

(c) Were not systematic

(d) Have no tentative conclusion

(e) None of the above

195. Recent studies on the relationship between anxiety and conditioning reveal that:

(a) Conditioning is not possible without anxiety

(b) Conditioning is possible with anxiety

(c) Excessive anxiety makes conditioning almost impossible

(d) Excessive anxiety makes conditioning possible

(e) None of the above

196. Who thought that conditioning is not only the prototype of all learning but that the most complex human behaviour and experience could be reduced to Pavlovian conditioned reflexes?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) W. Kohler

(c) B. F. Skinner

(d) Clark L. Hull

(e) None of the above

197. Classical conditioning seems to be largely concerned with responses mediated by the :

(a) Central Nervous System

(b) Peripheral Nervous System

(c) Autonomic Nervous System

(d) Endocrine System

(e) None of the above

198. Pavlovian principles commonly appear to be confined to:

(a) Glandular reactions and those of the soft muscles

(b) Central Nervous System

(c) Peripheral Nervous System

(d) Both Central and Peripheral Nervous System

(e) Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands

199. Dependence on experimenter controlled presentation of reinforcement is a restrictive feature in:

(a) Operant Conditioning

(b) Classical Conditioning

(c) Trial and Error Learning

(d) Latent Learning

(e) None of these

200. The return in strength of conditioned response (CR) after an interval of time following extinction is called:

(a) Spontaneous recovery

(b) Generalization

(c) Association

(d) Revival

(e) None of these

201. Which one of the following psychologists is associated with a theory of learning?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) C. G Jung

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) Fechner

(e) Binet

202. Reward or punishment is a/an:

(a) Motivating Factor

(b) Distracting Factor

(c) Enhancing Factor

(d) Reinforcing Factor

(e) Facilitating Factor

203. In Operant conditioning, the innate behaviour is instrumental in bringing out the:

(a) Conditioned Response

(b) Conditioned Stimulus

(c) Unconditioned Stimulus

(d) Unconditioned Response

(e) None of the above

204. In Pavlovian Conditioning:

(a) Neither stimulus nor response changes

(b) For the same stimulus, a different response is made

(c) The same response is made to a different stimulus

(d) Both stimulus and response change

(e) None of the above

205. The use of nonsense syllables in the laboratory study of learning was first introduced by:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) William James

(c) Osgood

(d) H. Ebbinghaus

(e) E. B. Titchener

206. Once a conditioned response (CR) has been established with a given stimulus, similar stimuli will also evoke that response. In Classical Conditioning this phenomenon is called:

(a) Primary Reinforcement

(b) Secondary Reinforcement

(c) Discrimination

(d) Generalization

(e) None of the above

207. Sudden perception of the relationship bet­ween the learner, the goal and the intervening obstacles occurs in:

(a) Pavlovian Conditioning

(b) Insightful Learning

(c) Operant Conditioning

(d) Transfer of Training

(e) Trial and Error Learning

208. The most effective stimulus for eliciting fear responses in infants is:

(a) Providing food that is not liked by them

(b) Loud noise

(c) Interruption

(d) Dissociation

(e) None of these

209. A response may be more resistant to extinction if reinforcement in conditioning trials has been:

(a) Continuous

(b) Never given

(c) Periodic

(d) Temporary

(e) None of the above

210. In our societies the beliefs, customs and attitudes are learned through:

(a) Operant Conditioning

(b) Classical Conditioning

(c) Transfer of training.

(d) Insightful learning

(e) None of the above

211. While experiments of learning go on, sometimes a sudden decrease in errors and time was observed by the Experimenter (E). This sudden decrease can be attributed to:

(a) Memory

(b) Perfect Learning

(c) Transfer of Training

(d) Insight

(e) None of these

212. Contrast, continuity etc. are regarded as the laws of:

(a) Association

(b) Dissociation

(c) Extinction

(d) Generalization

(e) Discrimination

213. As we know, in gambling, there is always a chance of winning but the gambler never knows when reinforcement may come; so he keeps going on responding. This schedule of reinforcement is called:

(a) Variable-interval schedule

(b) Fixed-Ratio schedule

(c) Variable-Ratio Schedule

(d) Fixed-Interval Schedule

(e) None of the above

214. In one experiment Kohler put a wooden box and a stick in the cage. He also hung a banana from the ceiling beyond the reach of a Chimpanzee. All these objects were kept in such a way that the Chimpanzee could perceive them easily. After some manipulation with the stick, standing on the box, the Chimpanzee hit the banana with the stick and got the banana down. This case illustrates:

(a) Classical Conditioning

(b) Motor Learning

(c) Verbal Learning

(d) Trial and Error Learning

(e) Insightful Learning

215. “Programmed instruction” is based on the principle of:

(a) Operant Conditioning

(b) Pavlovian Conditioning

(c) Verbal Learning

(d) Insightful Learning

(e) Trial and Error Learning

216. The theory of “Insightful Learning” was propounded by the:

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Gestalists

(c) Structuralists

(d) Functionalists

(e) None of the above

217. Most human behaviour is governed by the principle of:

(a) Latent Learning

(b) Trial and Error Learning

(c) Classical Conditioning

(d) Instrumental Conditioning

(e) None of the above

218. Any reinforcer will do two things simul­taneously. It will:

(a) Attract and inform

(b) Inform and affect

(c) Attract and affect

(d) Attract and reward

(e) Repel and punish

219. Conditioning can be established to stimuli which are:

(a) Both pleasant and unpleasant

(b) Only pleasant

(c) Only unpleasant

(d) Only previously conditioned

(e) None of the above

220. A famous experiment was conducted by Watson and Raynor in 1920 in which an infant boy of 11 months old was taken as the Subject. His name was Albert. When he was shown a white rat, he reached for it and showed no sign of fear. But when he was playing with the rat, he was suddenly frightened by a loud sound. Thereafter, he was afraid of the rat. Now the boy was afraid of when he was shown a white piece of cotton, a furcoat or other funny objects. But he never showed any such fear to rubber balls or blocks which had no rat-like appearance. In his experiment, the boy started showing fear of other funny objects besides the rat due to:

(a) Generalization

(b) Discrimination

(c) Association

(d) Dissociation

(e) Assimilation

221. Acceptable behaviour can be brought into the open by:

(a) Feedback

(b) Generalization

(c) Punishment

(d) Reward

(e) Discrimination

222. Reinforcement for a response is necessary in :

(a) Trial and Error Learning

(b) Latent Learning

(c) Operant Conditioning

(d) Insightful Learning

(e) None of the above

223. Gradual disappearance of a conditioned response in the absence of reinforcement when the conditioned stimulus is presented leads to :

(a) Discrimination

(b) Generalization

(c) Spontaneous Recovery

(d) Experimental Extinction

(e) None of the above

224. The monthly salary of a government servant is regarded as a reinforcement of:

(a) Fixed-interval Schedule

(b) Variable-Ratio Schedule

(c) Fixed-Ratio Schedule

(d) Varible-Interval Schedule

(e) None of the above

225. In training complex skills, the most effective method is to give gradual steps changing each response to be reinforced so that it must closely resemble the final complex response. This training is called:

(a) Higher Order Conditioning

(b) Secondary Motivation Training

(c) Successive approximation

(d) Autoshaping

(e) None of the above

226. Which one of the following is a mental pro­cess?

(a) Maturation

(b) Learning

(c) Intelligence

(d) Personality

(e) Interest

227. Learning means:

(a) A set

(b) Imitation

(c) Temporary change in behaviour

(d) Readiness to read

(e) Relatively permanent modification in behaviour

228. Learning is an association between stimulus and:

(a) Animal

(b) Organism

(c) Past Experience

(d) Response

(e) None of the above

229. One who has learnt to ride a cycle rides a Bajaj Scooter with little difficulty. The phenomenon illustrated is called:

(a) Transfer of learning

(b) Over learning

(c) Higher Order Conditioning

(d) Instinctive Drift

(e) None of the above

230. Psychologists who have subscribed to the ‘connection model’ claim that all learning takes place through the establishment of connections or associations between:

(a) Animal and Human being

(b) Eye and Ear

(c) Brain and Spinal Cord

(d) Stimuli and Responses

(e) None of the above

231. Suppose in an experiment, Stimulus (S1) is food, response for S1 is salivation (R1); Stimulus S2 is bell, response for S2 is listening i.e. R2; Classical Conditioning of salivation will relate:

(a) Si to R1

(b) S2 to R2

(c) S, to R2

(d) R, toR2

(e) S2 to R1

232. The law of learning that an act which has a satisfying effect will be learned more quickly than one which had a satisfying effect is called:

(a) Law of Exercise

(b) Law of Readiness

(c) Law of Effect

(d) Law of Intensity

(e) None of the above

233. Which one of the following method is not used in verbal learning?

(a) Paired-associate learning

(b) Serial learning

(c) Cognitive Learning

(d) Discrimination Learning

(e) Verbal-Discrimination learning

234. Specialization in any field of study involves more and more:

(a) Discrimination

(b) Generalization

(c) Punishment

(d) Reinforcement

(e) Feedback

235. The meaning of motor-skill is:

(a) Manipulation

(b) Learning to operate machines

(c) Learning to drive motor cars

(d) Learning which involves mainly the use of muscles

(e) None of the above

236. A driver who has learnt left-hand driving finds it difficult to learn right- hand driving. It is due to:

(a) Negative Transfer

(b) Positive Transfer

(c) Zero Transfer

(d) Principle of preparedness

(e) None of the above

237. An excellent lady musician may be a very 243 poor cook. It may be due to:

(a) Positive Transfer

(b) Negative Transfer

(c) Zero Transfer

(d) Discrimination

(e) None of these

238. In Classical Conditioning, reinforcement is not contigent on response, but it is quite definitely so in:

(a) Instrumental Conditioning

(b) Latent Learning

(c) Trial and Error Learning

(d) Insightful Learning

(e) None of these

239. Many learning theorists have believed that Pavlovian Conditioning is based on the principle of association by contiguity, where­as instrumental training is accomplished through the:

(a) Law of Exercise

(b) Law of Intensity

(c) Law of Effect

(d) Law of Contiguity

(e) None of the above

240. In Instrumental Conditioning, the response is actually instrumental in producing the:

(a) Punishment

(b) Stimulus

(c) Reward

(d) Extinction

(e) None of the above

241. The organism is not reinforced unless it makes the correct response in:

(a) Classical Conditioning Learning

(b) Instrumental Conditioning

(c) Trial and Error

(d) Autoshaping

(e) None of the above

242. Who recommended the term “Operant Con­ditioning” which means behaviour operates upon the environment to produce reinforce­ment?

(a) E. L. Thorndike

(b) W. Kohler

(c) I. P. Pavlov

(d) B. F. Skinner

(e) None of the above

243. A negative reinforcer is one which the organism generally:

(a) Avoids and rejects

(b) Produces and preserves

(c) Perceives and learns

(d) Attends and responds

(e) None of the above

244. The crucial feature of instrumental conditio­ning is that:

(a) It always uses a Skinner box

(b) Response is followed by reward accordance with some definite plan

(c) Stimulus is followed by reward accordance with some definite plan

(d) It is only applicable for human beings

(e) It is only applicable for animals

245. In which type of learning, the proper instrumental response, if performed imme­diately after a warning signal is received, enables the organism to ward off some dangerous or noxious stimulus?

(a) Maze Learning

(b) Trial and Error Learning

(c) Transfer of Training

(d) Avoidance Training

(e) None of the above

246. “A mother warns her child not to give sweets unless the child stops crying. She also refuses all advantages on account of his unacceptable behaviour.” This illustrates:

(a) Omission Training

(b) Transfer of Training

(c) Instinctive Drift

(d) Permise of Equipotentiality

(e) None of the above

247. In omission training, reinforcement is drop­ped only if:

(a) Particular stimulus is presented

(b) A particualar response is made

(c) Biological constraints are there

(d) Zero transfer is found

(e) None of the above

248. Because omission training involves omission of reinforcement, it has been sometimes called:

(a) Pseudoextinction

(b) Zero transfer

(c) Bilateral transfer

(d) Negative transfer

(e) None of the above

249. Presentation of a noxious stimulus contigent upon an animal’s response is known as:

(a) Reward

(b) Biofeedback

(c) Autoshaping

(d) Punishment

(e) None of the above

250.The instrumental conditioning principle that behaviour is moulded by its consequences finds its echo :

(a) In backward conditioning notion

(b) In forward conditioning notion

(c) In the feedback notion

(d) In the biofeedback notion

(e) None of the above

Answers

101. (c) 102. (a) 103. (b) 104. (a) 105. (b) 106. (a) 107. (d) 108. (a) 109. (c) 110. (b) 111. (c) 112. (b) 113. (b) 114. (c) 115. (a) 116. (b) 117. (b) 118. (a) 119. (c) 120. (b) 121. (a) 122. (a) 123. (b) 124. (c) 125. (a) 126. (a) 127. (c) 128. (a) 129. (a) 130. (b) 131. (d) 132. (a) 133. (a) 134. (c) 135. (b) 136. (a) 137. (c) 138. (b) 139. (a) 140, (c) 141. (a) 142. (b) 143. (b) 144. (b) 145. (b) 146. (a) 147. (d) 148. (a) 149. (c) 150. (a) 151. (c) 152. (a) 153. (c) 154. (a) 155. (d) 156. (c) 157. (c) 158. (a) 159. (a) 160. (c) 161. (a) 162. (a) 163. (d) 164. (b) 165. (a) 166. (d) 167. (a) 168. (c) 169. (b) 170. (a) 171. (c) 172. (d) 173. (c) 174. (a) 175. (c) 176. (a) 177. (b) 178. (a) 179. (c) 180. (a) 181. (b) 182. (a) 183. (b) 184. (c) 185. (a) 186. (d) 187. (a) 188. (d) 189. (c) 190. (a) 191. (a) 192. (d) 193. (b) 194. (a) 195. (c) 196. (a) 197. (c) 198. (a) 199. (b) 200. (a) 201. (c) 202. (d) 203. (a) 204. (a) 205. (d) 206. (d) 207. (b) 208. (b) 209. (c) 210. (a) 211. (d) 212. (a) 213. (c) 214. (e) 215. (a) 216. (b) 217. (d) 218. (d) 219. (a) 220. (a) 221. (d) 222. (c) 223. (d) 22 . (a) 225. (c) 226. (b) 227. (e) 228. (d) 229. (a) 230. (d) 231. (e) 232. (c) 233. (c) 234. (a) 235. (d) 236. (a) 237. (c) 238. (a) 239. (c) 240. (c) 241. (b) 242. (d) 243. (a) 244. (b) 245. (d) 246. (a) 247. (b) 248. (a) 249. (d) 250. (c)

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