(b) Cognitive Style

(c) Sensory System

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(d) Mood

(e) None of the above

102. The spatial-frequency theory maintains that form vision depends on the firing pattern of brain cells that respond to variations in the rates of change in brightness from:

(a) One part of a visual scene to another

(b) Temporal lobe to Frontal lobe

(c) One part of the brain to another

(d) Spinal cord to brain

(e) None of the above

103. The receptors for taste are specialized cells grouped together in little clusters known as:

(a) Tongue

(b) Taste Buds

(c) Taste Nerves

(d) Sweet Glands

(e) None of the above

104. The audible range for human beings is from about:

(a) 20 hertz to about 20,000 hertz

(b) 200 hertz to about 2000 hertz

(c) 400 hertz to about 4000 hertz

(d) 300 hertz to about 3000 hertz

(e) 600 hertz to about 6000 hertz

105. On a dark night, we may hear the footsteps of a thief outside the house, where as in reality, a cat may be passing by. This is an example of:

(a) Hallucination

(b) Illusion

(c) Linear perspective

(d) Law of Pragnaz

(e) None of the above

106. In a study on the Zulu tribes of Africa, the Experimenters reasoned that the Zulu indivi­duals would be less susceptible to the Muller- Lyer illusion than the European people in Africa. This illustration states that:

(a) Perception of illusions depends on the culture of the perceiver

(b) Perception of illusion depends on the Socio-economic Status

(c) Perception of illusions depends on the educational qualification of the individu­als

(d) Perception of illusion depends on the colour of the individuals

(e) None of the above

107. Sometimes it is very difficult to find an empty seat in a dark cinema hall. We bump against people and sometimes try to sit on them after entering to the dark hail in a sunny afternoon. After a brief span of time, we may adapt to darkness and see. This is an example of:

(a) Dark Adaptation

(b) Perceptual Constancy

(c) Depth Perception

(d) Brightness Constancy

(e) Colour Constancy

108. One psychologist has developed a theory of colour vision as well as a theory of hearing. Who is he?

(a) Von Bekesy

(b) Helmholtz

(c) Hubel

(d) Wiesel

(e) N.R. Carlson

109. From the following, who won the Nobel Prize for his research on the mechanisms of the cochlea?

(a) Helmholtz

(b) Von Bekesy

(c) E. Gardner

(d) Schiffman

(e) Leiman

110. When your friend is at a distance, certainly he looks smaller than when he is standing close to you. But you do not think that really he is smaller or shorter. The size of familiar objects does not change with distance. As your friend comes closer to you from a distance, you do not think that he is getting larger and larger. This is an illustration of:

(a) Size Constancy

(b) Object Constancy

(c) Height Constancy

(d) Depth Constancy

(e) Binocular Vision

111. The mechanism of reflex action is called:

(a) Reflexology

(b) Reflex Path

(c) Reflex Arc

(d) Reflexon

(e) None of the above

112. Figure-ground relationship was first estab­lished by:

(a) Gestalt Psychologists

(b) Behaviourists

(c) Structuralists

(d) Functionalists

(e) None of the above

113. Closure is a basic principle of:

(a) Perceptual defence

(b) Perceptual Organization

(c) Depth Perception

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) None of the above

114. Personal factors in perception are otherwise known as:

(a) Functional factors in perception

(b) Motivational factors in perception

(c) Social factors in perception

(d) Cultural factors in perception

(e) None of the above

115. The gap between Cornea and lens is filled with:

(a) Amino Acid

(b) Vitreous Humour

(c) Unknown Fluid

(d) Aqueous Humour

(e) None of the above

116. The image of an object falling on the blind spot of the eye :

(a) Will be visible

(b) Will not be visible

(c) Automatically vanishes

(d) Is not clear

(e) None of the above

117. The gap between cornea and lens is known as:

(a) Posterior Chamber

(b) Anterior Chamber

(c) Inner Chamber

(d) Secular Chamber

(e)None of the above

118. The innermost layer of the eye is called:

(a) Cornea

(b) Retina

(c) Blind Spot

(d) Fovea

(e) None of the above

119. The point at which the optic nerve gets out of the retina is called the:

(a) Light Spot

(b) Fovea

(c) Blind Spot

(d) Yellow Spot

(e) None of the above

120. A person who has no cones at the fovea:

(a) Is a colour blind

(b) Is very often a colour blind

(c) Is not able to see yellow colour at all

(d) Is deprived of black and white vision

(e)

None of the above

121. Perception without sensory stimulus is called:

(a) Illusion

(b) Phi-phenomenon

(c) Hallucination

(d) Perceptual Defence

(e) Perceptual Constancy

122. As the eyes become adapted to dark at one particular point, red colours begin to darken and the green and blues become brighter. This change is known as:

(a) Duplicity theory of Colour Vision

(b) Herring’s theory of Colour Vision

(c) Purkinje Effect

(d) Perceptual Constancy

(e) None of the above

123. The classic example of perceiving a coil of rope in darkness as a snake depicts about:

(a) Hallucination

(b) Illusion

(c) Phi-phenomenon

(d) Autokinetic Effect

(e) Perceptual Constancy

124. Meaningful sensation is otherwise known as:

(a) Attention

(b) Sensation

(c) Emotion

(d) Perception

(e) None of the above

125. Size judgement is based on:

(a) Retinal Image

(b) Clarity of Object

(c) Object Size

(d) Distance Information

(e) None of the above

126. “Perceived Size” approaches “physical size” when:

(a) Depth and Distance Cues are available

(b) Object is small

(c) Information is Minimum

(d) Object is Old

(e) None of the above

127. Which one of the following happens to be an important factor in selectivity of attention?

(a) Attitude

(b) Interest

(c) Boredom

(d) Concentration

(e) None of the above

128. An incorrect interpretation of the stimulus input is called:

(a) Illusion

(b) Hallucination

(c) Sensation

(d) Perception

(e) Attention

129. Each receptor requires some minimum level of energy to excite it. That minimum energy is called:

(a) Minimum Threshold

(b) Absolute Threshold

(c) Boundary Threshold

(d) Contour Threshold

(e) None of the above

130. A general principle of perception of form is the law of Pragnaz which was termed by:

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Structuralists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Gestalt Psychologists

(e) None of the above

131. Which one of the following is a stimulus variable in the determination of attending?

(a) Interest

(b) Attitude

(c) Size

(d) Aptitude

(e) None of the above

132. The perception of the whiteness of the snow even though the night dark can be explained on the basis of:

(a) Purkinje Effect

(b) Dark Adaptation

(c) Brightness Constancy

(d) Perceptual Defence

(e) None of the above

133. Perception of “Figure and Ground” results from:

(a) Experience

(b) Sensation Pattern

(c) Trial and Error

(d) The structure of Nervous System

(e) None of the above

134. An one-eyed person would lose precision in the perception of:

(a) Height

(b) Weight

(c) Colour

(d) Depth

(e) None of the above

135. The perceptual principle of ‘proximity’ states that:

(a) When stimuli are close together they tend to be grouped

(b) The nearer an object is, the more likely it is to be perceived

(c) The closer a stimulus is, the more likely it is to be attended

(d) Stimuli coming from equal distance are perceived as part of the same figure

(e) None of the above

136. Even though parallel, the rails appear to be meeting at a distance. This is a bright illustra­tion of:

(a) Linear Perspective

(b) Distance Perception

(c) Visual Illusion

(d) Aerial perspective

(e) None of the above

137. In a normal waking state, if an individual gets certain sensation with particular stimulus which is not available to others, this person is said to have:

(a) An illusion

(b) A phi-phenomenon

(c) A sensation

(d) A hallucination

(e) None of the above

138. Figure and Ground perception results from:

(a) Attention Pattern

(b) Sensation pattern

(c) Perception Pattern

(d) Emotional pattern

(e) None of the above

139. Perception is a:

(a) Psychological Process

(b) Physiological Process

(c) Physical Process

(d) Psycho-physiological Process

(e) None of the above

140. We perceive a square as a square in whatever position it is held, this constancy in percep­tion relates to:

(a) Size

(b) Depth

(c) Shape

(d) Height

(e) Weight

141. Illusion is the:

(a) False perception

(b) Right perception

(c) Wrong perception

(d) Delayed Perception

(e) None of the above

142. Hallucinations occur to individuals suffering from:

(a) Hysteria

(b) Epilepsy

(c) Peptic Ulcer

(d) Schizophrenia

(e) Asthma

143. A normal individual may experience hallu­cinations after taking drugs like:

(a) Heroin

(b) Morphine

(c) Seconel

(d) Pethedine

(e) None of the above

144. The tendency to see the immobility of objects when he moves about is called:

(a) Location Constancy

(b) Size Constancy

(c) Shape Constancy

(d) Depth Constancy

(e) None of the above

145. A contour is the boundary between:

(a) A figure and its ground

(b) A figure and another figure’s ground

(c) Two similar figures

(d) Two dissimilar figures

(e) None of the above

146. An object that has been constituted percep­tually as a permanent and stable thing continue to be perceived as such, regardless of illumi­nation, position, distance etc. This kind of stability of the environment experienced by human beings is termed as:

(a) Depth Constancy

(b) Perceptual Constancy

(c) Size Constancy

(d) Shape constancy

(e) None of the above

147. Whenever an object appears to maintain its shape despite marked changes in the retinal image, it is known as:

(a) Size Constancy

(b) Depth Constancy

(c) Shape Constancy

(d) Height Constancy

(e) None of the above

148. A red ball looks red in broad daylight as well as in dark night. This is due to:

(a) Light Constancy

(b) Brightness Constancy

(c) Size Constancy

(d) Colour Constancy

(e) None of the above

149. Soldiers dressed in colours of uniform that merge with the background is called:

(a) Colour Matching

(b) Colour Constancy

(c) Brightness Constancy

(d) Camaouflage

(e) None of the above

150. When there is a deliberate confusion of figure and ground and it is difficult to organise form and distinguish objects from one another, it is called:

(a) Camaouflage

(b) Phi-phenomenon

(c) Colour Constancy

(d) Brightness Constancy

(e) None of the above

151. Which principle/law of organization in per­ception states that there is a tendency to organize stimuli to make a balanced or sym­metrical figure that includes all parts?

(a) Law of Similarity

(b) Law of Symmetry

(c) Law of Proximity

(d) Law of Closure

(e) Law of Pragnaz

152. Stimuli that make the lowest interruptions in contour also tend to be grouped together. The tendency to organize the fragmentary stimuli into a familiar pattern is called the principle of:

(a) Similarity

(b) Proximity

(c) Closure

(d) Continuation

(e) Pragnaz

153. “Why do things look the way they do”? —This question was asked by the Gestalt Psychologist:

(a) W. G. Kohler

(b) M. Wertheimer

(c) Kurt Lewin

(d) K. Koffka

(e) None of the above

154. An illusion is not a trick or misperception. It is a/an:

(a) Attention

(b) Sensation

(c) Perception

(d) Emotion

(e) Motive

155. “The whole (perception) is more than the sum of its parts (Sensory inputs)”. This statement was given by:

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Gestalt Psychologists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Psychoanalysts

(e) Structuralists

156. The events, we perceive clearly, are at the:

(a) Margin

(b) Centre

(c) Side

(d) Focus

(e) None of the above

157. Attention is the term given to the processes that select certain inputs for inclusion in the focus of:

(a) Sensation

(b) Consciousness

(c) Unconsiousness

(d) Experience

(e) None of the above

158. The most fundamental process in form perception is the recognition of:

(a) A figure on a ground

(b) A picture without background

(c) A figure without ground

(d) The contour of a figure

(e) None of the above

159. Which principle of perceptual organization makes our perceived world of form more complete than the sensory stimulation that is presented?

(a) The Law of Pragnaz

(b) The Law of Closure

(c) The Law of Similarity

(d) The Law of Proximity

(e) The Law of Continuity

160. The device which is used in perceptual experiments for the very brief presentation of stimuli is known as:

(a) Psycho galvanometer

(b) Tachistoscope

(c) Aesthesiometer

(d) Electroencephalograph

(e) Polygraph

161. Coal looks black even in very bright sunlight, while snow continues to look white even at night. This is due to:

(a) Colour Constancy

(b) Size Constancy

(c) Shape Constancy

(d) Constancy of Brightness

(e) Colour Reflection

162. Monocular Cues are those which can operate when:

(a) Two eyes are looking

(b) Both eyes are invalid

(c) Only one eye is looking

(d) Only one eye is invalid

(e) None of the above

163. A gradient is a continuous change:

(a) Without abrupt transitions

(b) With abrupt transitions

(c) With highest stimulating agent

(d) With lowest stimulating agent

(e) None of the above

164. Retinal disparity is the difference in the images falling on:

(a) The retinas of the two eyes

(b) The foveas of the two eyes

(c) The blind spots of the two eyes

(d) The corneas of the two eyes

(e) None of the above

165. Who conducted a pioneering experiment to show that “Value” has a considerable effect on perception?

(a) Bruner and Goodman

(b) Osgood

(c) Dember

(d) Carter

(e) Postman

166. Which one of the following is a term given to the processes that select certain inputs for inclusion in the focus of experience?

(a) Sensation

(b) Emotion

(c) Affection

(d) Attention

(e) Conation

167. Which are the well known examples of the transformations and elaborations of sensory input that occur in the process of perceiving the world?

(a) Hallucinations

(b) Sensations

(c) Illusions

(d) Conation

(e) Attention

168. Who has first pointed out that the ‘Whole’ is more than the sum total of its parts?

(a) Kohler

(b) Wertheimer

(c) KurtLewin

(d) KurtKoffka

(e) Otto Rank

169. Which one of the following is formed when­ever a marked difference occurs in the bright­ness or colour of the background?

(a) Sizes

(b) Shapes

(c) Contours

(d) Sets

(e) None of the above

170. Perceived motion also occurs without any energy movement across the receptor surface. This type of motion is called:

(a) Constant Motion

(b) Retinal Disparity

(c) Real motion

(d) Apparent Motion

(e) None of the above

171. Which one of the following is an increase in the activity to extract information from the environment as a result of experience or practice with the stimulation coming from it?

(a) Convergence

(b) Divergence

(c) Perceptual Learning

(d) Plasticity of Perception

(e) None of the above

172. The ability to read other people’s thoughts is called

(a) Prerecognition

(b) Telepathy

(c) Psychokinesis

(d) Clairvoyance

(e) None of the above

173. “We perceive things as we are”. This state­ment emphasises upon:

(a) Functional Factors in Perception

(b) Objective Patterns in Perception

(c) Organizational factors in perception

(d) Voluntary Attention

(e) Involuntary Attention

174. The fact that the moon looks larger near the horizon than high in the sky is called the:

(a) MullerLyer Illusion

(b) Jastrow Illusion

(c) Ponzo illusion

(d) Moon Illusion

(e) Height-Width Illusion

175. One of the causes of the mental set is:

(a) Mood

(b) Emotion

(c) Sensation

(d) Habit

(e) Span

176. The old saying “Seeing is believing” does not hold good in case of:

(a) Hallucination

(b) Illusion

(c) Affection

(d) Conation

(e) Stimulation

177. The stimulus is explicit in:

(a) Hallucination

(b) Illusion

(c) Affection

(d) Conation

(e) Stimulation

178. In illusion, the stimulation is usually external, while the stimulations in hallucinations are:

(a) In the person himself

(b) In the stimulus itself

(c) Both in stimulus and perceiver

(d) In the external world

(e) None of the above

179. Muller-Lyer illusion is:

(a) Also a hallucination Jastrow illusion

(b) An individual illusion

(c) Otherwise called as

(d) An optical illusion

(e) None of the above

180. We are able to separate forms from the general ground in our visual perception only because we can perceive:

(a) Size

(b) Shape

(c) Side

(d) Contours

(e) Colours

181. The thought perception without any known means of communication is known as:

(a) Preognition

(b) Psychokinesis (PK)

(c) Clairovoyance

(d) Telepathy

(e) None of the above

182. The perception of future events or happenings through dreams or hallucinations is known as:

(a) Psychokinesis (PK)

(b) Clairovoyance

(c) Precognition

(d) Telepathy

(e) None of the above

183. Attention divides our perceived world into:

(a) Focus and Margin

(b) Margin and Centre

(c) Nucleus and Focus

(d) Focus and centre

(e) None of the above

184. The tendency to see the colour of a familiar object as the same, regardless of the actual light conditions is called:

(a) Colour Constancy

(b) Brightness Constancy

(c) Light Constancy

(d) Dark Constancy

(e) None of the above

185. By comparing experimental outcomes, which model provides more accurate predictions?

(a) Averaging Model

(b) Additive Model

(c) Self-attribution Model

(d) Personal-attribution Model

(e) None of the above

186. Experimental evidences suggest that people use a weighted averaging model to combine:

(a) Type information

(b) Attribute information

(c) Non-common Effects

(d) Trait information

(e) None of the above

187. The way in which individuals focus on specific traits to form an overall impression of others is known as:

(a) Social perception

(b) Perceptual organization

(c) Person Perception

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) Perceptual Constancy

188. Averaging models suggest that the mean of the information is:

(a) Most appropriate

(b) Not most appropriate

(c) Predictable

(d) Unpredictable

(e) None of the above

189. “Schemas” are organized bodies of informa­tion stored in:

(a) Perceptual Field

(b) Cognitive Field

(c) Emotion field

(d) Memory

(e) Sensation

190. In case of personality traits, we organize information into schemas called:

(a) Common Effects

(b) Non-common Effects

(c) Prototypes

(d) Somatotypes

(e) Stereotypes

191. Prototypes are schemas that organize a group of personality traits into a/an:

(a) Meaningful Personality Type

(b) Meaningless Personality Type

(c) Emotional Trauma

(d) Avoidance conflicting situation

(e) None of the above

192. The personality types that we derive in the case of person perception are organized into schemas known as:

(a) Prototypes

(b) Stereotypes

(c) Somatotypes

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) None of the above

193. Nancy Cantor and Walter Mischel suggest a frequently held prototypes concerns a person labelled on a general level as:

(a) “Permitted”

(b) “Submitted”

(c) “Dedicated”

(d) “Committed”

(e) None of the above

194. At what level, the prototype consists of diffe­rent types of committed individuals like monks, nuns and activists?

(a) Personal Level

(b) Environmental Level

(c) Subordinate Level

(d) Secondary Level

(e) Primary Level

195. Information processing capabilities are enhanced through the use of:

(a) Stereotypes

(b) Prototypes

(c) Prejudices

(d) Attitudes

(e) None of the above

196. With any schema, prototypes help us to organize:

(a) The social world around us

(b) The psychological world around us

(c) The psychophysical world around us

(d) The physical world around us

(e) None of the above

197. Covariation principle suggests that we try to analyse the relationships among a multitude of possible cause-and-effect variables inherent in a situation:

(a) To pin point a cause of behaviour

(b) To find out the cause of perceptual errors

(c) To find out cause of sensational errors

(d) To find out the cause of social perception

(e) None of the above

198. The Covariation Principle” states that the cause that will be choosen to explain an effect a cause that is present when the effect is also absent. This principle was introduced by:

(a) T. D. Wilson

(b) Keith Davis

(c) Harold Kelley

(d) E.E. Jones

(e) I.J. Stone

199. Consensus is the degree to which other people react similarly in the:

(a) Same situation

(b) Different situation

(c) Different emotional setup

(d) Different sensational setup

(e) None of the above

200. Consistency refers to the degree to which the actor behaves the same way in :

(a) Different situations

(b) Similar situations

(c) Both similar and dissimilar situations

(d) Other situations

(e) None of the above

Answers

101. (a) 102. (a) 103. (b) 104. (a) 105. (b) 106. (a) 107. (a) 108. (b) 109. (b) 110. (a) 111(c) 112. (a) 113.(b) 114. (a) 115.(d) 116. (b) 117.(b) 118.(b) 119. (c) 120. (a) 121. (c) 122. (c) 123. (b) 124. (d) 125. (d) 126. (a) 127. (b) 128. (a) 129. (b) 130. (d) 131. (c) 132. (c) 133. (b) 134. (d) 135. (a) 136. (c) 137. (d) 138. (b) 139. (d) 140. (c) 141. (c) 142. (d) 143. (a) 144. (a) 145. (a) 146. (b) 147. (c) 148. (a) 149. (d) 150. (a) 151. (b) 152. (d) 153. (d) 154. (c) 155. (b) 156. (d) 157. (b) 158. (a) 159. (b) 160. (b) 161. (d) 162. (c) 163. (a) 164. (a) 165. (a) 166. (d) 167. (c) 168. (d) 169. (c) 170. (d) 171. (c) 172. (b) 173. (a) 174. (d) 175. (d) 176. (b) 177. (b) 178. (a) 179. (d) 180. (d) 181. (d) 182. (c) 183. (a) 184. (a) 185. (a) 186. (d) 187. (c) 188. (a) 189. (d) 190. (c) 191. (a) 192. (a) 193. (d) 194. (c) 195. (b) 196. (a) 197. (a) 198. (c) 199. (a) 200. (d)

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