(b) Sublimation

(c) Repression

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(d) Rationalization

(e) Reaction Formation

102. Which defense mechanism substitutes an acceptable conscious motive for an unaccep­table unconscious one?

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Regression

(d) Repression

(e) None of the above

103. “After being told by her mother that her father has died, a little girl may act as though she has not heard her mother’s words and may ask where her father is”, This is an illustration of:

(a) Rationalization

(b) Denial

(c) Repression

(d) Regression

(e) None of the above

104. Who has seen dreams as a form of displacement in which the contents of the dream serve as symbols of actions or persons that evoke severe anxiety and thus require repression?

(a) Anna Freud

(b) Sigmund Freud

(c) Alfred Adler

(d) C.G. Jung

(e) None of the above

105. A mother punished her children too severely and said that she did so because she loves them and because “it is for their own good”. This is an illustration of:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Conversion

(d) Reaction Formation

(e) None of the above

106. Any external factor which blocks or delays the satisfaction of a motive is regarded as:

(a) Barrier of motive

(b) Blocking Behaviour

(c) Personal Source of Frustration

(d) Environmental Source of Frustration

(e) None of the above

107. Lack of height, intelligence and incapacity for hard work are examples of:

(a) Personal source of Frustration

(b) Environmental Sources of Frustration

(c) Conflicts

(d) Coping Behaviour

(e) None of the above

108. If the gap between “level of aspiration” and “level of achievement” is too wide:

(a) Frustration is bound to occur

(b) Conflict occurs

(c) Psychological imbalance occurs

(d) Abnormal disease is found

(e) None of the above

109. When a person has two positive (desirable) but mutually exclusive goals, his situation is expressed as:

(a) An approach-avoidance conflict

(b) A double approach-avoidance conflict

(c) An approach-approach conflict

(d) An avoidance-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

110. The approach-approach conflict becomes more difficult to resolve when:

(a) The goals are not only equally attractive but equally important and having far- reaching effects on an individual’s life

(b) Two goals are not equally unattractive

(c) Two goals are within reach

(d) Two goals are not equally important

(e) None of the above

111. “A young man wants to get married to the girl whom he loves and at the same time he wants to complete an important course in order to get a good job which is essential to start a new life.” What type of conflict he is facing?

(a) Approach-approach Conflict

(b) Approach-avoidance Conflict

(c) Avoidance-avoidance Conflict

(d) Double Approach-avoidance Conflict

(e) None of the above

112. When the goals are unevenly balanced, the resolution of the approach-approach con­flict:

(a) May pose a big problem for the indivi­dual

(b) May not pose a big problem for the individual

(c) Becomes impossible

(d) Takes a long time to resolve

(e) None of the above

113. When a person seeks to avoid two un­pleasant alternatives but cannot directly avoid one without encountering the other, he is confronted with:

(a) An approach-approach conflict

(b) An avoidance-avoidance conflict

(c) An approach-avoidance conflict

(d) A double approach-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

114. When the individual is between the devil and deep sea, he is supposed to confront with:

(a) An avoidance-avoidance conflict

(b) An approach-approach conflict

(c) An approach-avoidance conflict

(d) A double approach-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

115. When a person is attracted towards a goal and at the same time repelled by something associated with jt, he is supposed to confront with:

(a) An approach-approach conflict

(b) An avoidance-avoidance conflict

(c) An approach-avoidance conflict

(d) A double approach-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

116. The attitude towards the goal, which is at once liked and disliked or wanted and unwanted, is known as:

(a) Ambivalence

(b) Conflict

(c) Tension

(d) Obstruction

(e) None of the above

117. A girl likes candy very much; at the same time, she does not want to be fatty. She is supposed to be confronted with:

(a) Double approach-avoidance conflict

(b) Approach-avoidance conflict

(c) Approach-approach conflict

(d) Avoidance-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

118. Once a college teacher was found to be in a dilemma. He had to decide between two jobs-one in a renowned institution, with small classes, beautiful campus, excellent living accommodation but with a low salary and the other in a college that is not well known, with crowded and dingy classrooms, with a dreary campus, but with a very attractive salary and good chances of promotion. Such type of conflict is known as:

(a) Double approach-avoidance conflict

(b) Approach-avoidance conflict

(c) Approach-approach conflict

(d) Avoidance-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

119. A person who is confronted with a goal- object but finds it at once attractive and repulsive, shows:

(a) Double approach-avoidance conflict

(b) Approach-approach conflict

(c) Considerable “vacillatory” behaviour

(d) Avoidance-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

120. When we speak of “multiple conflict”, generally we mean:

(a) Avoidance-avoidance conflict

(b) Approach-avoidance conflict

(c) Double approach-avoidance conflict

(d) Approach-approach conflict

(e) None of the above

121. A change in the response strength as a function of the distance from goal is known as:

(a) Frustration

(b) Conflict

(c) Gradient

(d) Reinforcement

(e) Punishment

122. The necessity of making a choice involves :

(a) Affective strain

(b) Cognitive strain

(c) Conflicts

(d) Tension

(e) None of the above

123. The conflict in which the motives are divergent but the goal object is same is known as:

(a) Approach-avoidance conflict

(b) Avoidance-avoidance conflict

(c) Convergent conflict

(d) Divergent conflict

(e) None of the above

124. When the individual wants to go to two different goals at the same time, it is known as:

(a) A convergent conflict

(b) A divergent conflict

(c) An approach-avoidance conflict

(d) A double approach-avoidance conflict

(e) None of the above

125. Who defined frustrations as the results of the thwarting of motive either by some obstacle that blocks or impedes progress towards a derived goal?

(a) J. D. Page

(b) R. K. Merton

(c) J. C. Coleman

(d) M. Mead

(e) None of the above

126. A state of affairs in which two or more incompatible behaviour trends are evoked that cannot be satisfied at the same time is known as:

(a) Tension

(b) Conflict

(c) Stress

(d) Dilemma

(e) None of the above

127. “By conflict, the psychoanalysts mean a situation in which two wishes are so incompatible that the fulfilment of one would preclude the fulfilment of the other.” Who has given the above definition of conflict?

(a) J. C. Coleman

(b) J. F. Brown

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) Anna Freud

(e) None of the above

128. The stress is maximum when the stressful event:

(a) Comes suddenly

(b) Comes gradually

(c) Is anticipated in future

(d) Is related to past experience

(e) None of the above

129. A process by which a living organism acquires a particular way of acting or behaving or changes an existing form of behaviour or action is called:

(a) Sensation

(b) Adjustment

(c) Perception

(d) Attending

(e) None of the above

130. When the needs are neither high nor low, but are totally impossible; they are called:

(a) Conflicting Needs

(b) Exaggerated Needs

(c) Unrealistic Needs

(d) Social Needs

(e) None of the above

131. When an individual experiences a strong need for achievement and an equally strong need for security, it is called a/an:

(a) Exaggerated Need

(b) Conflicting Need

(c) Unrealistic Need

(d) Realistic Need

(e) None of the above

132. The physical, environmental and social causes of the stress state are termed:

(a) Stressors

(b) Conflicts

(c) Mechanisms

(d) Sources

(e) None of the above

133. Who emphatically told that changes in one’s life are important stressors?

(a) Allen (1983)

(b) Folkman (1984)

(c) T.H. Holmes (1984)

(d) Ruch (1971)

(e) Lazarus (1984)

134. The body’s response to stressors has been called:

(a) General adaptation syndrome

(b) Homeostasis

(c) Frustration

(d) Ego defenses

(e) None of the above

135. One stage in the general adaptation syndrome is essentially the emergency res­ponse of the body. What is the name of this stage?

(a) Stage of Resistance

(b) Stage of Exhaustion

(c) Stage of Homeostasis

(d) Alarm Reaction

(e) None of the above

136. In which stage of general adaptation syndrome, certain hormonal responses, espe­cially in the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) axis, become an important line of defense in resisting the effect of stressors?

(a) Stage of Resistance

(b) Stage of Homeostasis

(c) Stage of Alarm Reaction

(d) Stage of Exhaustion

(e) None of the above

137. In which stage of general adaptation syndrome, the body’s ability to respond to stresses has been seriously compromised?

(a) Stage of Alarm Reaction

(b) Stage of Exhaustion

(c) Stage of Resistance

(d) Stage of Homeostasis

(e) None of the above

138. When perceived stressors increase the susce­ptibility of the body to disease:

(a) Neurotic diseases occur

(b) Psychotic diseases occur

(c) Scizophrenia occurs

(d) Psychosomatic disorders occur

(e) None of the above

139. Cortisol and other similar hormones have many actions which allow the body to deal adaptively with stressors for long periods of time during the:

(a) Stage of Exhaustion

(b) Stage of Alarm Reaction

(c) Stage of Homeostasis

(d) Stage of Resistance

(e) None of the above

140. The technique by which the involuntary physiological responses can actually be brought under voluntary control through instrumental conditioning is known as:

(a) Biofeedback

(b) Hypnosis

(c) Systematic desensitization

(d) Relaxation Training

(e) None of the above

141. Who viewed that defense mechanisms originate in conflicts among the id, ego and super ego?

(a) Anna Freud

(b) Sigmund Fund

(c) Alfred Adler

(d) Otto Rank

(e) C.G. Jung

142. An active process by which a person “forgets” by “pushing down” into uncon­scious any thoughts that arouse anxiety is known as:

(a) Repression

(b) Regression

(c) Rationalization

(d) Sublimation

(e) Projection

143. A way of coping with one’s unwanted motives by shifting them onto someone else is known:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Projection

(c) Withdrawal

(d) Rationalization

(e) Regression

144. Redirection of sexual impulses to socially valued activities and goals is known as:

(a) Rationalization

(b) Sublimation

(c) Displacement

(d) Intellectualization

(e) Regression

145. The extreme form of “regression” is found in:

(a) Hysteria

(b) Schizophrenia

(c) Mental Retardation

(d) Phobia

(e) Obsessive Compulsive Neurosis

146. The “sour grapes” mechanism is otherwise known as:

(a) Displacement

(b) Rationalization

(c) Compensation

(d) Reaction Formation

(e) Regression

147. Direct compensation consists in intensive striving for success in the very field of:

(a) Inferiority

(b) Superiority

(c) Learning

(d) Intelligence

(e) None of the above

148. “Hero worship” is an obvious form of:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Identification

(c) Compensation

(d) Rationalization

(e) Regression

149. The common tendency of blaming others of our mistakes is a simple illustration of:

(a) Introjection

(b) Identification

(c) Sublimation

(d) Projection

(e) Rationalization

150. Many persons substitute “good” reasons for real reasons, so that their actions may appear justified and logical to preserve self respect and good opinion of associates without conscious intent. This window dressing of motives and actions is called:

(a) Rationalization

(b) Projection

(c) Introjection

(d) Sublimation

(e) Delusion

151. A high school student wanted to join the college after passing his annual examination. But to his utter disappointment, he failed in the examination. When he was asked that why he has not joined the college, he cautioned his disappointment by stating that college is a waste of time and money. The above story is an illustration of:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Projection

(d) Identification

(e) Regression

152. Sometimes people think that whatever happens is all for the best. This is an example of:

(a) “Sweet-Lemon” or “Pollyanna” attitude

(b) Introjection

(c) Projection

(d) Sublimation

(e) Regression

153. The deliberate and conscious ejection of discomforting impulses and memories from the field of attention is called:

(a) Repression

(b) Supression

(c) Regression

(d) Projection

(e) Introjection

154. The involuntary or spontaneous exclusion from conscious awareness of thoughts and impulses that are disturbing to the individual because of their painful or immoral nature is termed:

(a) Projection

(b) Rationalization

(c) Suppresion

(d) Repression

(e) Regression

155. To protest too much is equivalent to an admission of guilt. This is an example of:

(a) Reaction Formation

(b) Projection

(c) Introjection

(d) Sublimation

(e) Displacement

156. The imaginative infusion of an object or person with the attributes of another and their after feeling and behaving as one did to the first object is termed as:

(a) Projection

(b) Identification

(c) Introjection

(d) Compensation

(e) Sublimation

157. Many children manifest the tendency to do the precise opposite of anything that they have been directed to do. This is an example of:

(a) Negativism

(b) Projection

(c) Reaction Formation

(d) Sublimation

(e) Inhibition

158. Many disagreeable realities of life may be indirectly evaded by refusing to accept or come in contact with them. This is called:

(a) Reality Evasion

(b) Projection

(c) Introjection

(d) Sublimation

(e) Displacement

159. In the earlier stage, Freudian psychology was mostly concerned with the process of:

(a) Conscious

(b) Subconscious

(c) Sex

(d) Unconscious

(e) None of the above

160. The entire psychoanalytic theory of Freud was mostly based on the concept of:

(a) Repression and Unconscious

(b) Regression and Conscious

(c) Psychosexual Development

(d) Sex and Libido

(e) None of the above

161. In his psychoanalytic theory, Freud believed that repression which is purely unconscious, is the only cause of:

(a) Neurosis

(b) Psychosis

(c) Psychopathology

(d) Psychosomatic Disorder

(e) None of the above

162. To perform the homeostatic function, the ego has to struggle always against instinctive and dynamic tendencies which need:

(a) Sexual gratification

(b) Reinforcement

(c) Immediate gratification

(d) Libido satisfaction

(e) None of the above

163. The mechanism which the ego uses to check the satisfaction of unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges are referred to as:

(a) Narcissism

(b) Libido Satisfaction

(c) Defences

(d) Ego Function

(e) None of the above

164. When id and the super ego dominate the ego, harmony is broken and to maintain balance, the ego applies various:

(a) Methods

(b) Techniques

(c) Approaches

(d) Defence Mechanisms

(e) None of the above

165. Who emphasized that even anxiety is reduced through defensive fantasies of children?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) Anna Freud

(c) Alfred Adler (d) C.G. Jung

(e) None of the above

166. The economic approach to mental activities is done by using various:

(a) Dreams

(b) Defence Mechanisms

(c) Nightmares

(d) Fantasies

(e) None of the above

167. The defence mechanisms are broadly classi­fied into:

(a) Successful and unsuccessful defence mechanisms

(b) Ego and Super Ego mechanisms

(c) Id and Ego mechanisms

(d) Id and Super Ego mechanisms

(e) None of the above

168. Which type of defense mechanisms are not able to press back the various id desires for a long time?

(a) Successful defence mechanisms

(b) Direct defence mechanisms

(c) Indirect defence mechanisms

(d) Unsuccessful defence mechanisms

(e) None of the above

169. The unsuccessful defence mechanisms are otherwise known as:

(a) Pathological or diseased defences

(b) Ego defences

(c) Direct defences

(d) Indirect defences

(e) None of the above

170. Most of the defence mechanisms:

(a) Operate unconsciously although they do not belong to the system of unconscious

(b) Are nothing to do with normal life

(c) Are not helpful for survival

(d) Operate consciously

(e) None of the above

171. Repression is the major mechanism for the solution of:

(a) Super ego conflict

(b) Ego conflict

(c) Unconscious conflict

(d) Conscious conflict

(e) None of the above

172. Conversion and sublimation are the major defence mechanisms for the solution of:

(a) Conscious conflict

(b) Ego conflict

(c) Supper ego conflict

(d) Unconscious conflict

(e) None of the above

173. Which type of defence mechanisms help the ego to channelize many of the id desires in proper direction?

(a) Unsuccessful Defense Mechanisms

(b) Direct Defense Mechanisms

(c) Successful Defense mechanisms

(d) Indirect Defense Mechanisms

(e) None of the above

174. Which one is considered as the most complete and successful of all defense mechanisms?

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Reaction Formation

(d) Identification

(e) Repression

175. Which defense mechanism is not a defence, but the full use of a tamed and channeled drive?

(a) Repression

(b) Regression

(c) Rationalization

(d) Sublimation

(e) Reaction Formation

176. In which defense mechanism, the forces of libido are diverted to social activity when finds them unsatiable?

(a) Reaction Formation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Repression

(d) Sublimation

(e) None of the above

177. The transformation of sexual and aggressive urges into creative work in socially acceptable directions is known as:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Regression

(d) Reaction Formation

(e) Repression

178. The resolution of certain frustrations related to the basic urges through the substitution of a socially acceptable goal is the main purpose of:

(a) Rationalization

(b) Sublimation

(c) Regression

(d) Repression

(e) Reaction Formation

179. Sexual desires are usually sublimated in:

(a) Art and literature

(b) Medicine

(c) Games and Sports

(d) Culture

(e) None of the above

180. Aggressive desires are sublimated in:

(a) Art and literature

(b) Medicine

(c) Sports and Adventure

(d) Culture

(e) None of the above

181. In sublimation, the unconscious conflict is resolved by flight to:

(a) Active Politics

(b) Active Research

(c) Creative Work

(d) Dreams

(e) None of the above

182. Rationalization consists in adding good reasons for actions, unaccepted drives and needs which are:

(a) Not accepted by the society

(b) Not accepted by the parents

(c) Accepted by the society

(d) Accepted by the family members

(e) None of the above

183. The invention of unconsciously acceptable motives by the ego to cover up those un­conscious motives which it cannot accept refers to:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Reaction Formation

(d) Fantasy

(e) Identification

184. Which defense mechanism refers to the substitution of a socially approved motive for a socially disapproved one?

(a) Sublimation

(b) Regression

(c) Rationalization

(d) Reaction Formation

(e) Repression

185. When the individual allows some of his id desires to be satisfied and acts in a particular manner to defend himself at the same time, he is said to have:

(a) Repressed

(b) Regressed

(c) Identified

(d) Rationalized

(e) Displaced

186. Rationalization is a justification to complete irrational desires coming from the:

(a) Ego

(b) Super Ego

(c) Id

(d) Conscious

(e) Subconscious

187. By rationalization, one tries to justify his:

(a) Motive

(b) Personality

(c) Behaviour

(d) Emotion

(e) Memory

188. “A candidate who fails in an interview tries to save his prestige by announcing that he did not really want the job” This illustrates the defense mechanism of:

(a) Displacement

(b) Reaction Formation

(c) Rationalization

(d) Sublimation

(e) None of the above

189. “Many people cannot tolerate the closing of windows in the winter though they do not know the ‘why’ of it.” This shows how rationalization functions in:

(a) Unconscious level

(b) Conscious level

(c) Subconscious level

(d) Id level

(e) None of the above

190. Repression is a/an:

(a) Major defense which does not check inner forces

(b) Involuntary forgetting of wishes

(c) Cornerstone of Behaviourism

(d) Topographic-dynamic conception

(e) None of the above

191. Repression is a major defence which checks:

(a) Dreams

(b) Nightmares

(c) Innerforces

(d) Fantasies

(e) None of the above

192. A conflict among Id, Ego and Super ego which produces anxiety may be prevented from registering itself in consciousness by being opposed by an anticathexis is called:

(a) Regression

(b) Rationalization

(c) Reaction Formation

(d) Repression

(e) None of the above

193. Repression is a/an:

(a) Unconscious process

(b) Conscious process

(c) Topographic static conception

(d) Voluntary Forgetting

(e) None of the above

194. Maximum repression occurs in the:

(a) Adulthood

(b) Adolescence

(c) Childhood

(d) Old Age

(e) None of the above

195. Primal Repression refers to those wishes which have never been:

(a) Conscious

(b) Unconscious

(c) Regressive

(d) Subconscious

(e) None of the above

196. Sometimes repression operates upon memo­ries that are associated with:

(a) Traumatic Experience

(b) Past Experiences

(c) Childhood

(d) Adolescence

(e) None of the above

197. Who viewed that the wide spread forgetting during preoedipal stage and in the latency period is not due to normal causes of for­getting but because of repression?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) B. B. Wolman

(c) Blum

(d) H.S. Sullivan

(e) H.S. Rosenthal

198. In normal cases, the effects of repression can be observed only in studying:

(a) Fantasies and Nightmares

(b) Dreams

(c) Regressive Behaviour

(d) Abnormal Behaviour

(e) None of the above

199. Having reached a certain stage, a person may retreat to an earlier level because of fear. This is called:

(a) Repression

(b) Reaction Formation

(c) Regression

(d) Rationalization

(e) Projection

200. Literally, regression means:

(a) Marching Forward

(b) Antisocial Desires

(c) Going back

(d) Throwing Out

(e) None of the above

Answers

101. (c) 102. (b) 103. (b) 104. (b) 105. (b) 106. (d) 107. (a) 108. (a) 109. (c) 110. (a) 111. (a) 112. (b) 113. (b) 114. (a) 115.(c) 116. (a) 117. (b) 118. (a) 119. (c) 120.(c) 121.(c) 122. (b) 123.(c) 124. (b) 125. (c) 126. (b) 127. (b) 128. (a) 129. (b) 130. (c) 131. (b) 132. (a) 133.(c) 134. (a) 135. (d) 136. (a) 137. (b) 138. (d) 139. (d) 140. (a) 141. (b) 142. (a) 143. (b) 144. (b) 145. (b) 146. (b) 147. (a) 148. (b) 149. (d) 150. (a) 151. (b) 152. (a) 153. (b) 154. (d) 155. (a) 156. (b) 157. (a) 158. (a) 159. (d) 160. (a) 161.(c) 162.(c) 163.(c) 164. (d) 165. (b) 166. (b) 167. (a) 168. (d) 169. (a) 170. (a) 171. (d) 172. (d) 173.(c) 174. (a) 175. (d) 176. (d) 177. (a) 178. (d) 179. (a) 180. (c) 181.(c) 182. (a) 183. (d) 184. (c) 185. (d) 186.(c) 187.(c) 188.(c) 189. (a) 190. (d) 191.(c) 192. (d) 193. (a) 194. (c) 195. (a) 196. (a) 197.(c) 198. (b) 199. (c) 200. (c)

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