(b) J. B. Watson

(c) B. F. Skinner

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(d) Albert Bandura

2. Who claimed that learning has two basic sources – “response consequences” and “modelling”?

(a) B. F. Skinner

(b) Albert Bandura

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) William James

3. Albert Bandura viewed that learning is not limited to response consequence, but most of our learning is acquired through:

(a) Trial and Error

(b) Conditioning

(c) Identification

(d) Modelling

4. Any reinforcement obtained through direct experience is known as:

(a) Vicarious Reinforcement

(b) External Reinforcement

(c) Self-produced reinforcement

(d) Partial Reinforcement

5. Learning through observation of conse­quences of others behaviour is called:

(a) Viscarious experience

(b) Objective experience

(c) Subjective experience

(d) Self-produced experience

6. Gestalt Psychology is a German school foun­ded by:

(a) R. H. Wheeler

(b) Max Wertheimer

(c) Wolfgang Kohler

(d) Kurt Lewin

7. Experiments on apparent movement served the basis for the foundation of:

(a) Behaviourism

(b) Structuralism

(c) Gestalt Psychology

(d) Psychoanalysis

8. The word “configuration” has been frequently used as the nearest translation of:

(a) Person

(b) Movere

(c) Gestalt

(d) Psycho

9. The problem of how various elements are organized into wholes was the central theme for:

(a) Behaviourism

(b) Functionalism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Gestalt Psychology

10. Who developed the concept of creative synthesis which, in fact, recognized the difference between wholes and sum of their parts?

(a) E. B. Titchener

(b) Wilhelm Wundt

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) Immanuel Kant

11. The concept of “Mental Chemistry” was developed by:

(a) John Stuart Mill

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) E. B. Titchener

(d) William James

12. Research works on the concept of “Figure and Ground” were mainly advanced by:

(a) Kohler

(b) Rubin

(c) Koffka

(d) Wertheimer

13. An instrument which allows still pictures to be exposed alternatively in such a way that we perceive motion in pictures is called:

(a) Microscope

(b) Stroboscope

(c) Tachitoscope

(d) Barometer

14. In the year 1910, a psychologist was travelling from Vienna to Germany in train for a holiday. He left his train at Frankfurt and stopped at a place to purchase a toy stroboscope. With the help of stroboscope, he made several observations and finally concluded that what we perceive did not necessarily conform to what was really found in the environment. This idea was perhaps the starting point of Gestalt Psychology. Who was the psychologist?

(a) Max Wertheimer

(b) Wolfgang Kohler

(c) KurtKoffka

(d) Ernst Mach

15. Max Wertheimer has conducted a series of experiments to provide a scientific explana­tion of:

(a) Latent Learning

(b) Apparent movement

(c) Abnormal forgetting

(d) Personality

16. The results of Wertheimer’s experiments on perception were published in 1912 and the illusion of the apparent movement came to be known as:

(a) Phi-phenomenon

(b) Hallucination

(c) Delusion

(d) Conversion

17. Who has done his research works on apes in the island of Tenerife?

(a) Wolfgang Kohler

(b) KurtKoffka

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) Max Wertheimer

18. Who has written the book “The Mentality of Apes”?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) KurtKoffka

(c) Wolfgang Kohler

(d) Max Wertheimer

19. Gestalists believe that there is one to one relationship between physical events and psychological events. This is known as:

(a) Constancy hypothesis

(b) Associationism

(c) Isomorphism

(d) Phiphenomenon

20. Gestalt Psychologist’s concept “Constancy hypothesis” is somewhat similar to the structuralist concept:

(a) Doctrine of psychophysical parallelism

(b) Self-observation

(c) Retrospection

(d) Tridimensional theory of feeling

21. The various bonds of association utilized by Structuralists as well as E. L. Throndike were referred to as “Bundle Hypothesis” by:

(a) Max Wertheimer

(b) Kurt Lewin

(c) Wolfgang Kohler

(d) J.B. Watson

22. The theme of bundle hypothesis was that the experience was a composition of:

(a) Elements

(b) Ideas

(c) Images

(d) Illusions

23. For Gestalt Psychologists, psychology was the study of both:

(a) Mind and Soul

(b) Conscious and Behaviour

(c) Mind and Experience

(d) Experience and Soul

24. Which principle of Gestalists incorporated a patterning of cohesive and restraining forces that presented a picture in the brain like a map of things that was perceived?

(a) Isomorphism

(b) Phiphenomenon

(c) Insight

(d) Constancy Hypothesis

25. The Gestalt psychology is well-known for its contribution in the field of:

(a) Memory

(b) Perception

(c) Personality

(d) Intelligence

26. A Chinese sage in 700 B.C. had expressed the view that some of parts was different from the wholes. Who was he?

(a) Mao-Tung

(b) Lao-Tse

(c) Leo-Te

(d) Teng-Tse

27. Those objects which are similar to their structure tend to be perceived as organized together or into whole. This is known as the principle of:

(a) Proximity

(b) Similarity

(c) Closure

(d) Figure and Ground

28. The principle of continuity is otherwise known as:

(a) Principle of closure

(b) Principle of direction

(c) Principle of similarity

(d) Principle of proximity

29. When certain part of the perceptual object is left out, we have a tendency to fill the gap and perceive accordingly by making the Gestalt complete. This is known as the Principle of:

(a) Similarity

(b) Closure

(c) Proximity

(d) Continuity

30. The principle of pragnaz is otherwise known as the principle of:

(a) Good form

(b) Closure

(c) Similarity

(d) Proximity

31. One principle of perceptual organization states that any perception tends to organize itself into a figure that stands out upon a certain background. What is it?

(a) Figure and Ground

(b) Proximity

(c) Similarity

(d) Continuity

32. One Gestalt phenomenon indicates that the perceived objects tend to remain constant in size even when they are viewed from varying distances. What is it?

(a) Object constancy

(b) Figure and Ground

(c) Continuity

(d) Field Dynamics

33. A piece of coal kept in shadow and in sun will be perceived as coal although the level of reflection of brightness in sun is greater than the level of reflection of brightness in room. This is called:

(a) Size constancy

(b) Brightness constancy

(c) Phi-phenomenon

(d) Delusion

34. A man seen from 5 metre distance or from 15 metre distance will be perceived of the some size. This illustrates:

(a) Size Constancy

(b) Brightness Constancy

(c) Phi-Phenomenon

(d) Object Constancy

35. A field is a dynamic whole or a system in which changes in any one part affect the other parts. This is known as Gestalt principle of:

(a) Field Dynamics

(b) Phi-Phenomenon

(c) Figures and Ground

(d) Illusion f

36. Gestalt Psychologists held that learning occurs by:

(a) Trial and Error

(b) Insight

(c) Intuition

(d) Imitation

37. Illusion of movement is otherwise known as:

(a) Delusion

(b) Hallucination

(c) Isomorphism

(d) Phi-Phenomenon

38. Kohler conducted learning experiments on an intelligent chimpanzee at Tenerife in Canasy Island. What was name of that Chimpanzee?

(a) Sultan

(b) Albert

(c) Peter

(d) Wulff

39. According to Gestalt Psychologists, learning a principle in one situation and applying the same to other situation is called:

(a) Isomorphism

(b) Illusion

(c) Transposition

(d) Phiphenomenon

40. The ground for studying thinking by Gestalt Psychologists had been provided by:

(a) Wurzburg school

(b) Structuralistic school

(c) Behaviouristic school

(d) Psychoanalytic school

41. A Gestalt Psychologist explicitly denied any application of Trial and Error in thinking. For him, thinking is always goal-directed as well as insightful and it creates new gestalts. Who was the psychologist?

(a) Max Wertheimer

(b) Wolfgang Kohler

(c) KurtKoffka

(d) Bertlett

42. Max Wertheimer has distinguished among three types of thinking and these are:

(a) p, y and q (b) z, y and c

(c) x, y and z (d) a, b, and y

43. According to Wertheimer, type “a” thinking refers to:

(a) Imagination

(b) Abstract Thinking

(c) Productive Thinking

(d) Creative Thinking

44. The recent viewpoint of human learning called “Organization view of Memory” has a close resemblance to the basic tenents of:

(a) Gestalt Psychology

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Functionalism

45. Who have rightly commented on Gestalt Psychologists, “They were, in fact, the intellectual forefathers of much of what is today called cognitive psychology, which is now a dominant viewpoint in American Experimental Psychology?

(a) Rogers and Ross

(b) Hilgard and Bower

(c) Max and Maslow

(d) Maier and Maslow

46. The concept of “life space” was developed by:

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) Kurt Lewin

(c) E. Brunswik

(d) R. G. Barker

47. Who considered his field theory to be “topological psychology” or “Vectorial Psychology?

(a) Kurt Lewin

(b) E. C. Tolman

(c) E. Brunswik

(d) J. R. Kantor

48. Kurt Lewin has borrowed the two terms “topology” and “Vector” from:

(a) Mathematics

(b) Physics

(c) Chemistry

(d) Botany

49. Topology is a form of geometry that investigates spatial properties of:

(a) Figures

(b) Images

(c) Configurations

(d) Illusions

50. Who has maintained that human behaviour is a function of both person and the psychological environment or taken together “life space”? In terms of equal,

B = f (L) or B = f (P, E)

Where B = Behaviour, P = Persons and E = Psychological Environment

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) Kurt Lewin

(d) B. F. Skinner

51. According to Lewin, the external environment lying outside the person’s life space is called:

(a) Foreign Hull

(b) Remoteness

(c) Firmness

(d) Weakness

52. When two regions of life space interact with each other, it produce a/an:

(a) Event

(b) Image

(c) Dream

(d) Idea

53. An event through which one cell or region of life space communicates with each other is known as:

(a) Locomotion

(b) Communication

(c) Imagination

(d) Creativity

54. The physical or psychological movement of the person from one region of life space to another region is called:

(a) Locomotion

(b) Imagination

(c) Creativity

(d) Communication

55. Lewin held that the locomotion from one region to another takes place through a fixed pathway or space. This is called:

(a) Imaginary space

(b) Remote space

(c) Locomotive Space

(d) Hodological Space

56. Kurt Lewin viewed that only those facts that exist in the life space have some effects on the organism. This principle is called:

(a) The principle of concreteness

(b) The principle of relatedness

(c) The principle of contemporaneity

(d) None of the above

57. Who said that the present life space must be taken as something containing a psycho­logical past and a psychological future?

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) Kurt Lewin

(c) William Woodworth

(d) William Mc Dougall

58. An individual may daydream to become the president of a country. This illustrates Lewin’s concept of:

(a) Vector Psychology

(b) Unreality

(c) Reality

(d) Common interpretation

59. Kurt Lewin’s Vector psychology consists of his dynamic concepts which are related to:

(a) Motivational aspects of human behaviour

(b) Emotional aspects of human behaviour

(c) Intellectual aspects of human behaviour

(d) Perceptual aspects of human behaviour

60. The popular saying, “Grass on the other side of the river looks more greener”, reveals Lewin’s concept of:

(a) Vector

(b) Valence

(c) Levels of Reality

(d) Topology

61. According to Lewin, when a goal is obstructed or towards which an individual is not allowed to go, develops a/an:

(a) Stronger positive valence

(b) Stronger negative valence

(c) Irregular negative valence

(d) Irregular positive valence

62. Vector refers to those psychological forces that influence the person to the extent that he moves in:

(a) Different directions

(b) Negative direction

(c) Positive direction

(d) A particular direction

63. In the last part of his life, Kurt Lewin has paid attention towards the problems of:

(a) Industrial Psychology

(b) Educational Psychology

(c) Abnormal Psychology

(d) Social Psychology

64. The social process by which people interact face-to-face in group is called:

(a) Socialization

(b) Group Dynamics

(c) Stereotypes

(d) Attitude

65. Lewin viewed that the group of the persons and its environment constitute the:

(a) Psychological field

(b) Social field

(c) Environment

(d) Psychophysical field

66. Who told that Lewin’s concepts were only “pictorial analogies and illustrative meta­phors”?

(a) Garrett

(b) Broyler

(c) Brunswik

(d) E. C. Tolman

67. E.C. Tolman’s concept of “cathexis” is equivalent to the Lewin’s concept of:

(a) Valence

(b) Vector

(c) Group dynamics

(d) Need system

68. The acquired relationship between an object and the motivating condition is called:

(a) Cathexis

(b) Behaviour space

(c) Valence

(d) Vector

69. The repsentations of environment through which latent learning is possible is called:

(a) Field Expectancy

(b) Cathexis

(c) Need System

(d) Vector

70. Tolman’s concept of “Behaviour Space” is very intimately related to Lewinian concept of:

(a) Group Dynamics

(b) Life Space

(c) Vector

(d) Valence

71. Most of the research works of Egon Brunswik were concentrated upon:

(a) Learning

(b) Perceptual constancy

(c) Illusion

(d) Hallucination

72. The system of Egon Brunswik is popularly known as :

(a) Field Theory

(b) Instinct Theory

(c) Purposive Behaviourism

(d) Probabilistic Functionalism

73. Who has placed emphasis upon “represen­tative design” for experimentation in which all interacting factors involved in determi­nation of behaviour could be studied?

(a) Kurt Lewin

(b) E. C. Tolman

(c) Kohler

(d) Max Wertheimer

74. From the researches on “thing constancy”, who had concluded that the subjects (S) tend to make a compromise in the perceptual judgement between distal or real characte­ristics of the objects and the proximal or sensory characteristics of the objects?

(a) Egon Brunswik

(b) Kurt Lewin

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) Max Wertheimer

75. If the Brunswik ratio is one (unity ratio), it indicates that constancy is:

(a) Zero

(b) Perfect

(c) Positive

(d) Negative

76. When the Brunswik ratio is zero, it indcates that retinal stimulus or proximal stimulus completely determines the:

(a) Learning experiences

(b) Perceptual experiences

(c) Physical experiences

(d) Past experiences

77. Tolman and Brunswik have jointly published a research paper in which they expressed their common ideas in the concept of what is popularly known as :

(a) Partial Reinforcement

(b) Brunswik Ratio

(c) Probability Learning

(d) Vicarious Function

78. Which function simply emphasized that cues or behaviours could be substituted for each other because they acted vicariously for each other?

(a) Autonomic Function

(b) Various Function

(c) Systematic Function

(d) Central Function

79. The concept of “Probability Learning” was developed by:

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) Brunswik

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) Wolfgang Kohler

80. Brunswik claimed that his system was probabilistic in the sense that the various goals in our environment were related only probabilistically to different:

(a) Cues and Responses

(b) Stimuli

(c) Learning Situations

(d) Experimental designs

81. Field theory represents more or less an outgrowth of:

(a) Gestalt Psychology

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Functionalism

82. In Lewin’s topological system, emphasis was placed upon the study of “life space” which includes:

(a) Person and psychological environment

(b) Society and Group

(c) Person and Group

(d) Environment and Group

83. William Mc Dougall has developed a system of Psychology which is popularly known as:

(a) Field Psychology

(b) Hormic Psychology

(c) Gestalt Psychology

(d) Behavioural Psychology

84. Who defined “Psychology” as “the positive science of product of living creatures”?

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) J.B. Watson

(c) Kurt Lewin

(d) William Mc Dougall

85. Who is very popular in Psychology for his theory of “Instinct”?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) William Mc Dougall

(c) I. P. Pavlov

(d) C.G. Jung

86. Mc Dougall has considered the instincts important because they are:

(a) The primary “movers” of our activities

(b) Hereditary

(c) Learned and speedy movers

(d) None of the above

87. William Woodworth’s name is associated with:

(a) Behavioural Psychology

(b) Gestalt Psychology

(c) Hormic Psychology

(d) Dynamic Psychology

88. William Woodworth made it clear that S-O-R formula was a better formula than mere S-R formula for explaining the various aspects of:

(a) Experience

(b) Behaviour

(c) Intelligence

(d) Creativity

89. Mc Dougall has borrowed the word “hormic” from the Greek word “horme” which meant a/an:

(a) Urge

(b) Idea

(c) Situation

(d) Experience

90. According to Mc Dougall, the purpositive act terminates when the organism reaches:

(a) The goal

(b) The ultimatum

(c) Ten trials

(d) Twenty trials

91. Mc Dougall was opposed to the fact that human behaviour could be interpreted in terms of:

(a) Perception

(b) Learning

(c) Personality

(d) Intelligence

92. Who has considered instincts as “release mechanism or just easily exploding containers of energy”?

(a) Mc Dougall

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) J. S. Mill

93. Mc Dougall has revealed that the activities of a person generally lead to the goal or end. Such activities are known as purposive activities or behaviour. He also mentioned that if these activities lead the person to a goal or end, there must be some kind of “energy” behind those activities. He termed this energy as:

(a) Intellectual energy

(b) Instinctive energy

(c) Sex energy or Libido

(d) Physical energy

94. Mc Dougall (1908) has depicted his most famous theory of instinct in his book:

(a) Physiological Psychology

(b) Body and Mind

(c) Outline of Abnormal Psychology

(d) Introduction to Psychology

95. Mc Dougall has accepted the theory of Lamarck who had shown that there occurs:

(a) Hereditary transmission of acquired characteristics

(b) Imitation in learning and perception

(c) Training in learning and perception

(d) Hereditary transmission in memory

96. According to Mc Dougall, the central part of instinct is:

(a) Cognitive aspect

(b) Emotional aspect

(c) Conative aspect

(d) None of these

97. For Mc Dougall, to perceive certain food odours when one is hungry constitutes:

(a) The cognitive aspect of instinct

(b) The conative aspect of instinct

(c) The affective aspect of instinct

(d) None of these

98. Conative, cognitive and Affective aspects of instinct make a complete:

(a) Motivational cycle

(b) Mental Act

(c) Emotional cycle

(d) Perceptual cycle

99. After 1932, Mc Dougall has substituted a different term for “instinct” because that term came into some considerable disfavour and criticism. What is that concept?

(a) Libido

(b) Propensity

(c) Intensity

(d) Incentive

100. Mc Dougall revealed about a new kind of modification of instincts later on. Such modification may take place through what is called combination of several instincts towards the same object. The resulting state is known as:

(a) Libido

(b) Sentiments

(c) Concepts

(d) Incentives


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