(a) Mc Dougall

(b) J. B. Watson

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(c) J. S. Mill

(d) William James

102. For Mc Dougall, the seat of conscious mental activity is:

(a) Mind

(b) Soul

(c) Synapse

(d) Libido

103. Who has rightly revealed that Behaviourism has reduced the person “to a large white rat or a slower computer”?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) R. S. Woodworth

(c) Bugental

(d) Maslow

104. Who has rightly commented, “The study of 1 crippled, sturted, immature and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psycho­logy and cripple philosophy”?

(a) Abraham Maslow

(b) Carl Rogers

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) R. S. Woodworth

105. Who was considered as “Spiritual father of humanism in America?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) Carl Rogers

(c) R. S. Woodworth

(d) Abraham Maslow 1

106. Who assumed that every person has an inherent tendency to actualize his unique potential?

(a) Abraham Maslow

(b) Carl Rogers

(c) R. S. Woodworth 1

(d) J.B. Watson

107. Abraham Maslow assumed a holistic approach to:

(a) Perception

(b) Motivation

(c) Learning

(d) Intelligence

108. Maslow’s self-actualization theory has been best explained in terms of:

(a) Perceptual Processes

(b) Intellectual Processes

(c) Creativity

(d) Motivational Processes

109. Alfred Adler’s striving for superiority and Erik Erikson’s need for mastery are similar to Maslow’s concept of:

(a) Belongingness Need

(b) Esteem Needs

(c) Need for self-actualization

(d) Safety Needs

110. Self-actualization refers to the desire for:

(a) Self-fulfillment

(b) Security

(c) Sex satisfaction

(d) Love and belongingness

111. In framing the concept of “Self-actualization”, Maslow (1970) has acknowledged 1 his debt to:

(a) Kurt Lewin

(b) Kurt Goldstein

(c) Carl Rogers

(d) R. S. Woodworth

112. Need for self-actualization is an umbrella need that covers:

(a) 10 metaneeds or being values

(b) 100 metaneeds or being values

(c) 20 metaneeds or being values

(d) 17 metaneeds or being values

113. Abraham Maslow is well-known for his concept of:

(a) Hierarchical model of motivation

(b) Topographical Psychology

(c) Field Theory

(d) Life Space

114. Self-actualization need lies at the top of the hierarchy where only:

(a) 50% people reach

(b) 10% people reach

(c) 80% people reach

(d) 100% people reach

115. The existential Psychology is highly related to Humanistic Psychology. These two systems together constituted the:

(a) Third force in psychology

(b) Fourth force in psychology

(c) First force in psychology

(d) Second force in psychology

116. Existential Psychology deals with person as such who exists as:

(a) A being-in-the-world

(b) An animal

(c) A psychophysical entity

(d) An environmental product

117. The basic aim of existential psychology is to understand a person in his:

(a) Motivational cycle

(b) Situational world

(c) Environmental cycle

(d) Existential reality

118. Soren Kierkegard was a/an:

(a) American Philosopher

(b) Danish Philosopher

(c) English Philosopher

(d) Swiss Philosopher

119. When a person meaningfully communicates with others, he is said to have:

(a) Existed

(b) Communicated

(c) Restricted

(d) Preferred

120. The very term “existential neurosis” was first explained by:

(a) Rollo may (1909)

(b) Maddi (1967)

(c) Martin Heidegger (1899)

(d) Karl Jaspers (1960)

121. For cognitive psychologists, psychology is the study of:

(a) Experience

(b) Mind and Soul

(c) Behaviour

(d) Higher and mental processes

122. When the child is about two years old, he develops the ability to respond to even those objects there not observable. This is called:

(a) Egocentrism

(b) Object permanence

(c) Semiotic function

(d) Animism

123. In pre-operational stage, the “intuitive period” is also known as:

(a) Sensori-motor Period

(b) Perceptual Period

(c) Concrete Operational Period

(d) Formal Operational Period

124. “Childhood shows the man as morning ‘ hows the day”. – This quotation reveals the importance of:

(a) Early childhood influence on the deve­lopment of personality

(b) The influence of environment on perso­nality

(c) Childhood of important personalities

(d) Importance of childhood in our lives

125. The holistic approach considers man as:

(a) Religious

(b) A unified organism

(c) A dualistic being

(d) An emotional being

126. According to Jean Piaget, egocentrism is a major hindrance to:

(a) Memory

(b) Cognitive Development

(c) Learning

(d) Creativity

127. In the development of language and thinking, the child tends to display:

(a) Egocentric attitudes and centration

(b) Abnormal behaviour

(c) Assimilation and accommodation

(d) Seriation and accommodation

128. According to Piaget, during age 4 to 7, there is decrease of gross absurdity in thinking and reasoning. The child has now some ideas of classes or concepts. So he groups objects by:

(a) Proximity

(b) Similarity

(c) Pranaz

(d) Closure

129. The ability of the child to maintain equi­valence inspite of change in the perceptual field is called:

(a) Reversibility

(b) Assimilation

(c) Seriation

(d) Centration

130. For children, Piaget observed two types of speech which are very often used. These are:

(a) Egocentric and Socialized speech

(b) Haphazard and Distorted speech

(c) Symbolic and socialized speech

(d) Communicative and Distorted speech

131. Jean Piaget stressed the educational signi­ficance of learning in a/an:

(a) Social context

(b) Physical context

(c) Environmental context

(d) Psychophysical context

132. When a child gives evidence of being fluent, flexible, original and elaborative, he is said to be:

(a) Intelligent

(b) Creative

(c) Gifted

(d) Dull

133. For the first time, who has introduced the technique of “Brain Storming”?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) Osborn

(c) Jean Piaget

(d) R. S. Woodworth

134. Noam Chomsky’s major contribution to cognitive psychology was his theory of:

(a) Language

(b) Grammar

(c) Concept

(d) Equivalence Formation

135. Chomsky has developed a psycholinguistic theory of language development having a/an:

(a) Biological base

(b) Psychological base

(c) Psychophysical base

(d) Physiological base

136. Chomsky has assumed some innate neurological mechanisms which facilitate child’s acquisition of syntax. These mecha­nisms are called:

(a) Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

(b) Surface Structure

(c) Transformational Rules

(d) Deep Structure

137. Who viewed that the major problem in understanding a language is to derive deep structure from the surface structure of the sentences?

(a) Noam Chomsky

(b) B. F. Skinner

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) J. B. Watson

138. The “meaning” of the sentence is determined by:

(a) Deep structure

(b) Surface structure

(c) Language acquisition Device

(d) Productive aspect of Language

139. An attempt to explain something unknown in terms of already known principles is known as:

(a) Model

(b) Concept

(c) Theory

(d) Hypothesis

140. Information-processing model attempts to explain cognition in terms of the principles of operation of:

(a) Machines

(b) Computers

(c) Galvanometers

(d) Barometers

141. The “Information Processing Model” has given birth to the concept of:

(a) Artificial Intelligence

(b) Abstract Intelligence

(c) General Intelligence

(d) Situational Intelligence

142. Intellectual capacities of computers are called:

(a) General Intelligence

(b) Artificial Intelligence

(c) Specific Intelligence

(d) Abstract Intelligence

143. Information Processing Models have given birth to the concept of “artificial in­telligence” which is very important to study:

(a) Memory

(b) Intelligence

(c) Learning

(d) Problem solving Behaviour

144. Bandura has placed importance on:

(a) Instrumental Learning

(b) Insightful Learning

(c) Classical conditioning

(d) Modelling or Observational Learning

145. Modern Psychology has been unduly influenced by:

(a) Information Processing Model

(b) Structuralism

(c) Functionalism

(d) Gestalt Psychology

146. In ancient psychology of India, transform­ation and modification of mind are done through:

(a) Dharma

(b) Abhidharma

(c) Karma

(d) Yoga

147. The First Indian Psychological laboratory was established in the University of:

(a) Madras in 1928

(b) Calcutta in 1915

(c) Utkal in 1958

(d) Patna in 1960

148. Who has established the “Psychoanalytic Society” in India in the year 1922?

(a) Prof. Girindra Sekhar Bose

(b) Prof. G. C. Mishra

(c) Dr. R. N. Rath

(d) Prof. Maithili Jha

149. Indian Psychological Association was formed in the year:

(a) 1920

(b) 1930

(c) 1925

(d) 1950

150. The famous book “Origin of Species” deals with the theory of:

(a) Creativity

(b) Evolution

(c) Intelligence

(d) Libido

151. Folk Psychology deals with:

(a) Folk literature

(b) Folk art

(c) Folk behaviour

(d) Folk mythology

152. When and where did the first International Congress of Psychology meet?

(a) In Vienna in 1897

(b) In Paris in 11889

(c) In New Delhi in 1909

(d) In Kathmandu in 1990

153. A system is based upon determinism, empiricism, reductionism and environmentalism. Name the system.

(a) Gestalt Psychology

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Psychoanalysis

(d) Structuralism

154. Behaviourism regards personality as the totality of:

(a) Environmental products

(b) Behavioural patterns

(c) Cultural products

(d) S-R connections

155. Who has perceived human behaviour as a result of the motion of a fluid from the sense organs to the brain along the nerves and back from the brain to nerve endings in the muscles?

(a) Descartes

(b) Wilhelm Wundt

(c) J. S. Mill

(d) J.B. Watson

156. According to B.F. Skinner, the simple unit of behaviour is:

(a) Neuron

(b) Reflex

(c) Nervous System

(d) Nerves

157. Who viewed that whenever behaviour is correlated to specific eliciting stimuli, it is “respondent behaviour” and whenever no such stimuli are present it is called “operant behaviour”?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) B. F. Skinner

(c) Clark H. Hull

(d) E. C. Tolman

158. Kurt Goldstein’s psychological theory is based on the principles of constancy or equalization of:

(a) Sources

(b) Energy

(c) Intelligence

(d) Response

159. The idea of pleasure and unpleasure are related to the mental economy of excitation. This concept was borrowed by Sigmund Freud from:

(a) Weber

(b) Fechner

(c) Watson

(d) Pavlov

160. In 1895, Breuer and Freud have published a volume entitled “Studies in Hysteria”. These studies reported successful treatment of hysterical symptoms by a method called:

(a) Observation

(b) Introspection

(c) Hypnotism

(d) Catharsis

161. The law of proximity in perception becomes a law of “temporal contiguity” in the:

(a) Personality Theory

(b) Learning Theory

(c) Theory of Creativity

(d) Theory of Intelligence

162. In the “Oral Biting Period” of Psychosexual Development, the libido is fixated on the:

(a) Physical Self

(b) Genital Organs

(c) Hands

(d) Heads

163. Who held that human beings only go through an oedipal phase probably due to two reasons – (i) Because of the close knit character of human family formation and the utter helplessness of children during their first few years and (ii) the ability of helpless little boys and girls to build fantasies and daydreams about sexuality including ideas about parental intercourse, to entertain fantastic hopes of possessing a loved parent and in most cases to recognise the anatomical roof of sex differences even though they may misinterpret its source?

(a) Benedeck (1959)

(b) Cameron (1969)

(c) Rangell (1955)

(d) Otto rank (1929)

164. According to Rangell (1955), the preoedipal child enters his oedipal phase with only infantile precursors of a/an:

(a) Super Ego

(b) Ego

(c) Id

(d) Unconscious

165. “It seems probable that the “Oedipal Phase” is biologically predetermined or atleast that given such a close knit unit as the human family in the Western Culture, it is biologically inevitable.” Who has given the above statement?

(a) C.G. Jung (1919)

(b) Benedeck (1959)

(c) Cameron (1969)

(d) Rangell (1955)

166. The tendency of men to marry women resembling their mother and the tendency of girls to marry men resembling their father indicates the shadow of:

(a) Electra Complex

(b) Oedipus Complex

(c) Narcissism

(d) Libido

167. Constipation is a common defence reaction against:

(a) Elimination

(b) Fixation

(c) Repression

(d) Regression

168. Excessive fixation in the “anal stage” may lead people to develop the tendency to be:

(a) Doctors

(b) Teachers

(c) Military men

(d) Industrialists

169. A sexual attachment towards one of the parents (of the opposite sex) with a concomitant jealousy towards the other parents is popularly known as:

(a) Fixation

(b) Narcissism

(c) Oedipus Complex

(d) Libido

170. Who has emphatically remarked in his theory, “Super ego is the heir to Oedipus Complex”?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) C. G. Jung

(c) Alfred Adler

(d) Otto Rank

171. The therapy formulated by Maslow which emphasizes the work of each individual and his personal growth self-direction is popularly known as:

(a) Behaviour Therapy

(b) Group Therapy

(c) Client-Centred Therapy

(d) Humanistic Therapy

172. The view that an organism can be understood only as a whole and not as a sum of its components is called:

(a) Psychoanalytic

(b) Holistic

(c) Behaviouristic

(d) Structuralistic

173. The concept that needs arrange themselves in an order in terms of importance from the most basic biological needs to psychological needs is popularly known as:

(a) Hierarchy of Needs

(b) Homeostasis

(c) Reminiscence

(d) Imprinting

174. The residence for ex-mental patients who are attempting to return to normal life activities is commonly known as:

(a) Asylum

(b) Mental Hospital

(c) Half-way house

(d) Mental Clinics

175. Which school of Psychology always emphasized whole patterns rather than elements?

(a) Behaviourism

(b) Gestalt Psychology

(c) Functionalism

(d) Structuralism

176. A view of human beings that emphasises the individual’s responsibility for becoming the kind of person he should be is called:

(a) Behaviourism

(b) Existentialism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Functionalism

177. Repetition of another person’s actions or gestures is known as:

(a) Echolalia

(b) Echophraxia

(c) Enuresis

(d) Estrangement

178. The school of psychology which considers overt behaviour as its field of study is popularly known as:

(a) Structuralism

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Functionalism

(d) Gestalt Psychology

179. A firm belief that everything is unreal, is otherwise known as:

(a) Abnormal Delusion

(b) Delusion of persecution

(c) Delusion of Grandure

(d) Nihilistic Delusion

180. An escape mechanism by which a person avoids facing frustration by moving from place to place or job to job is popularly known as:

(a) Rationalization

(b) Nomadism

(c) Sublimation

(d) Reaction Formation

181. A model or pattern used in the collection and interpretation of data is otherwise known as:

(a) Control group

(b) Experimental group

(c) Paradigm

(d) Population

182. The process of treating abnormal psy­chological conditions by means of drugs is known as:

(a) Psychosurgery

(b) Psychotherapy

(c) Psychopathology

(d) Psychopharmacology

183. The branch of Psychology which studies psychological aspects of teaching and up­bringing is known as:

(a) Educational Psychology

(b) Pedagogic Psychology

(c) School Psychology

(d) Developmental Psychology

184. The sequence of events in the evolution of groups of organisms is known as:

(a) Phrenology

(b) Phylogenesis

(c) Physiognomy

(d) Pictogram

185. The famous doctrine advanced by Franz Gall that human or animal mental features are associated with the shape of the skull is known as:

(a) Physiognomy

(b) Phrenology

(c) Phylogenesis

(d) Pictogram

186. A branch of “Special Psychology” which ex­amines the mental development of the blind and people with poor eyesight is called:

(a) Tropisms

(b) Typhopsychology

(c) Abnormal Psychology

(d) Clinical Psychology

187. E. C. Tolman’s theory represents an eclectic approach towards:

(a) Personality

(b) Creativity

(c) Learning

(d) Intelligence

188. In his theory, E. C. Tolman has revealed about a type of learning in which the learner has to identify and determine his own drive state and respond accordingly. Name the type of learning.

(a) Drive Discrimination

(b) Field Expectancy

(c) Equivalence Beliefs

(d) Field Cognition Modes

189. For Wilhelm Wundt, attention was a perception of a narrow region of:

(a) Unconscious

(b) Consciousness

(c) Subconscious

(d) Super ego

190. The idea of “Consolidation” in memory was depicted by:

(a) G. E. Muller

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) J. B. Watson

191. The concept of “Consolidation in memory” was helpful to explain the phenomenon of:

(a) Emotion

(b) Forgetting

(c) Thinking

(d) Personality

192. C. G. Lange was a/an:

(a) American Physiologist

(b) German Psychologist

(c) English Psychologist

(d) Danish Physiologist

193. According to Guthrie, Thorndike’s concept of reward and punishment could also be replaced by:

(a) The law of Readiness

(b) Single trial learning

(c) The law of Effect

(d) The Principle of last response

194. According to E.C. Tolman, cathexis is a type of learning in which the association appears to be formed between:

(a) Certain objects and certain drive states

(b) Stimulus and Organism

(c) Stimulus and Response

(d) Response and Organism

195. In which type of Tolman’s learning, the motor patterns are associated with or conditioned by behaviour?

(a) Drive Discrimination

(b) Motor patterns

(c) Field cognition modes

(d) Field Expectancy

196. E. C. Tolman’s “Field Expectancy” learning is not the usual SR learning, rather it is :

(a) S-O-R learning

(b) S-S learning

(c) S-P learning

(d) S-G learning

197. Very often, a sub-goal like scoring of high grades provides the same motivation as might be provided by the main goal like winning love and appreciation etc. The learning performed in such a condition is said to be the:

(a) Equivalence Beliefs Learning

(b) Field Expectancy

(c) Field cognition modes

(d) Drive Discrimination

198. In 1930, E. C. Tolman and his associate Charles Honzik performed an experiment to demonstrate:

(a) Latent Learning

(b) Insightful Learning

(c) Trial and Error Learning

(d) Classical Conditioning

199. Psychology has a long past, but:

(a) Short history

(b) Has no scientific basis

(c) No system

(d) No theory

200. Prior to 1879, psychology was a part of:

(a) Sociology

(b) Philosophy

(c) Anthropology

(d) Zoology


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