(b) 1798

(c) 1879

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(d) 1789

202. A coherent and inclusive, yet flexible, organization and interpretation of the facts and special theories of the subject is called:

(a) A system

(b) A theory

(c) A group

(d) A school

203. When we pay attention to a cluster of ideas brought together to form a coherent set of belief about psychology, it constitutes a:

(a) School

(b) System

(c) Theory

(d) Concept

204. Who has defined “system” in the following way?

“By the term psychological system is implied a coherent and inclusive, yet flexible, organization and interpretation of the facts and special theories of the subject”.

(a) J. B. Watson (1920)

(b) Max Wertheimer (1914)

(c) E. B. Titchner (1890)

(d) Mc Geoch (1933)

205. When we pay attention to a group of associated psychologists, it constitutes:

(a) Group of Psychology

(b) School of Psychology

(c) System of Psychology

(d) Era of Psychology

206. The system founded by E. B. Titchener is popularly known as:

(a) Functionalism

(b) Structuralism

(c) Behaviourism

(d) Psychoanalysis

207. Which system stresses that psychology is the study of conscious experience which, through the method of introspection, can be analysed into its three basic elements- sensation, feelings and images:

(a) Psychoanalysis

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Functionalism

208. Functionalism, as a system, was founded by:

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) William James

(c) Max Wertheimer

(d) E. B. Titchner

209. Which school of Psychology emphasized upon functional utility of consciousness but not on its analytical character?

(a) Functionalism

(b) Structuralism

(c) Behaviourism

(d) Gestalt Psychology

210. As a school, Functionalism was founded by:

(a) Titchener and Wundt

(b) John Dewey and Angell

(c) James and Wertheimer

(d) James and Watson

211. A set of related assumptions from which, by reasoning, testable hypothesis can be gene­rated is called a:

(a) Theory

(b) Hypothesis

(c) System

(d) School

212. In psychology, some systems approve the idea that both mind and body exist. Such systems are called as:

(a) Dualistic systems

(b) Ritualistic systems

(c) Bipolar systems

(d) Evaluative systems

213. The first dualistic system, Structuralism was named as “doctrine of psychophysical parallelism” by:

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) R.I. Watson

214. Deterministic view maintains that any behaviour at the present is determined by:

(a) What has happened in the past

(b) What will happen in future

(c) Both the past and future experience

(d) Both the present and future experience

215. J. B. Watson and Sigmund Freud are supporters of:

(a) Mind-body relationship

(b) Deterministic view point in Psychology

(c) Extreme environmentalism

(d) Hereditary principles

216. The supporters of teleology believe that:

(a) Our future determines present behaviour

(b) Our past experience determines present behaviour

(c) Our heredity determines our behaviour

(d) Our place of birth determines our behaviour

217. Who was regarded as the father of modern psychology?

(a) Rene Descartes

(b) Gattfried Leibnitz

(c) Benedict Spinoza

(d) John Locke

218. The book entitled “The Passions of Soul” was written by:

(a) John Locke

(b) Rene Descartes

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) Sigmund Freud

219. Who believed that mind is like a “tabula rasa” or a blank sheet of paper upon which, due to experiences of various sort, ideas are written?

(a) David Hartley

(b) George Barkeley

(c) John Locke

(d) David Hume

220. Who has been regarded as the father of British Associationism?

(a) George Barkeley

(b) John Locke

(c) David Hartley

(d) David Hume

221. Who is popularly known as the father of scientific pedagogy?

(a) J. F. Herbart

(b) John Locke

(c) Rene Descartes

(d) Sigmund Freud

222. According to Herbart, each idea has a tendency of:

(a) Self-actualization

(b) Self-preservation

(c) Self-confidence

(d) Self-observation

223. Psychophysics is the science which tries to investigate the quantitative relationship between physical stimulus and resulting:

(a) Psychological Experience

(b) Physiological Experience

(c) Emotional Experience

(d) Perceptual Experience

224. Who was regarded as father of psychophysics?

(a) Johannes Muller

(b) F.J. Gall

(c) E.H. Weber

(d) G. T. Fechner

225. The doctrine of phrenology was born with:

(a) John Locke

(b) F.J. Gail

(c) Johannes Muller

(d) G. T. Fechner

226. Which law stated that conduction in nerve occurs in one direction only?

(a) Law of forward direction in the nervous system (Bell)

(b) Fechner’s Law

(c) Weber’s Law

(d) Law of backwaid direction in the nervous system

227. In 1826, Bell demonstrated that sensation from muscles was necessary for better motor control. This is named as:

(a) Brain circle

(b) Motivational cycle

(c) Blood cycle

(d) Nervous circle

228. The automatic and involuntary action or response towards a stimulus is called:

(a) Reaction time

(b) Reflex

(c) Nervous action

(d) Physiological action

229. The book “Hereditary genius” was written by:

(a) Sir Francis Galton

(b) Charles Darwin

(c) John Locke

(d) J.B. Watson

230. The concept of phrenology was an important doctrine which was originally practised by:

(a) John Locke

(b) Franz Gall

(c) Sir Francis Galton

(d) Charles Darwin

231. Directly impressed by the concept of variation and natural selection, Galton pro­pounded the concept of individual diffe­rence—a concept which laid the foundation for a branch of psychology popularly known as:

(a) Psychophysics

(b) Psychophysiology

(c) Neurophysiology

(d) Psychometrics

232. Psychophysics had started with Weber’s experimentations but flourished with:

(a) Locke’s efforts

(b) Fechner’s efforts

(c) Galton’s efforts

(d) Gall’s efforts

233. Maximum Works of Helmholtz were based upon:

(a) Physics

(b) Sense physiology

(c) Psychophysics

(d) Psychometrics

234. Reaction time experiments conducted by Bessel gave rise to:

(a) Psychometrics

(b) Personal Equations

(c) Physiotherapy

(d) Psychotherapy

235. Who is regarded as a forerunner of testing movement in Psychology?

(a) John Locke

(b) Francis Galton

(c) Franz Gall

(d) B.F. Skinner

236. Wilhelm Wundt’s book “Principles, of Physiological Psychology” was directly the product of his interest in:

(a) Physiology and Anatomy

(b) Physiology and Psychology

(c) Psychology and Physics

(d) Psychology and Chemistry

237. Wundt proposed his “Systematic Psycho­logy” in his book:

(a) Physiological Psychology

(b) Outline of Psychology

(c) Systematic Psychology

(d) Experimental Psychology

238. For Wundt, psychology is broadly the science of:

(a) Experience

(b) Ego

(c) Unconscious

(d) Sex energy

239. Wundt has pointed out the conscious experience could be analysed in terms of two psychical elements and these are:

(a) Ego and super ego

(b) Sensations and Feelings

(c) Death instinct and libido

(d) Life instinct and libido

240. According to Wundt, when sensations are blended together, it gives rise to:

(a) Hallucinations

(b) Dreams

(c) Illusions

(d) Images

241. Tridimensional theory of feeling was advocated by:

(a) Wilhelm Wundt

(b) John Locke

(c) E. B. Titchener

(d) Galton

242. Sensations and Feelings have two basic attributes. These are:

(a) Quantity and Quality

(b) Quality and Intensity

(c) Quantity and Intensity

(d) Threshold and Intensity

243. The elements of sensations and feelings are combined to yield:

(a) Psychical Compounds

(b) Psychophysical Compounds

(c) Psychoneurological Compounds

(d) Psychosocial Compounds

244. Wundt suggested that the elements of consciousness are combined by means of:

(a) Dissociation

(b) Association

(d) Displacement

(c) Regression

245. Association of elements by similarity or by contrast is known as:

(a) Assimilation

(b) Complication

(c) Displacement

(d) Synthesis

246. A short person standing between two tall persons looks still more shorter due to assimilation of visual sensations by:

(a) Contrast

(b) Complication

(c) Association

(d) Synthesis

247. Wundt’s process of complication was partly derived from the complication experiment of:

(a) Titchener

(b) Herbart

(c) Freud

(d) William James

248. Complication refers to association of sensations from two sense modalities such as:

(a) Eye and Ear

(b) Tongue and Skin

(c) Eye and Tongue

(d) Ear and Tongue

249. To explain the combination of elements by association, Wundt formulated the:

(a) Principle of Creative Synthesis

(b) Law of Experimentation

(c) Law of Readiness

(d) Law of Security

250. Wundt borrowed the “Principles of Creative Synthesis” from the doctrine of mental chemistry developed by:

(a) Wilhelm Wundt

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) John Stuart Mill

(d) William James

251. Wundt has pointed out that the method of studying conscious or immediate experience is:

(a) Observation

(b) Experimentation

(c) Case Study

(d) Introspection

252. According to Wundt, as phenomenon, apperception refers to focus of:

(a) Consciousness

(b) Unconscious

(c) Preconscious

(d) Superego

253. Apperception is the synthesis of elements into the totality of:

(a) Superego

(b) Ego

(c) Consciousness

(d) Unconscious

254. In his theory, Wundt has revealed that mind and body are parallel but not interacting systems. This concept is popularly known as Wundt’s:

(a) Psychophysical Parallelism

(b) Psychoneurological synthesis

(c) Psychosocial Parallelism

(d) Psychosocial Synthesis

255. Who was regarded as an “identity theorist” because he accepted mind and body as two aspects of same reality?

(a) E. B. Titchener

(b) Wilhelm Wundt

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) J. B. Watson

256. Wurzburg School in Germany was established under the leadership of:

(a) G. E. Muller

(b) Oswald Kulpe

(c) E. B. Titchener

(d) Wilhelm Wundt

257. According to Titchener, all science had its starting point in:

(a) Experience

(b) Attention

(c) Perception

(d) Behaviour

258. E.B. Titchener’s formal definition of the subject matter of Psychology was:

(a) Experience dependent on an experi­encing person

(b) Unconscious experience of an in­dividual

(c) Conscious experience of a person

(d) Conscious experience during birth

259. For Titchener, mind consists of the sum total of a person’s experiences:

(a) Summed from birth to death

(b) At any given time

(c) Summed in childhood

(d) Summed in adulthood

260. Consciousness consists of the sum total of a person’s experiences:

(a) Summed in childhood

(b) Summed in adolescence

(c) At any given time

(d) Summed from birth to death

261. In his book “Outlines of Psychology”, Titchener pointed out that there are more than 42,415 different types of:

(a) Sensations

(b) Perceptions

(c) Emotions

(d) Feelings

262. Titchner has rejected Wundt’s tridimen­sional theory of:

(a) Emotion

(b) Feeling

(c) Sensations

(d) Perceptions

263. For Titchener, “affections” were the ele­ments of:

(a) Emotion

(b) Feeling

(c) Perception

(d) Sensation

264. E.B, Titchener rejected Wurzburger’s claim for imageless thought because of:

(a) Faulty or Incomplete Introspection

(b) Faulty collection of data

(c) Faulty Observation

(d) Faulty synthesis

265. “Stimulus Error” was encountered by Tit­chener in:

(a) Observation

(b) Introspection

(c) Experimentation

(d) Imagination

266. In 1915, who has formulated his famous theory named “Context theory of meaning”?

(a) E. B. Titchener

(b) Wilhelm Wundt

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) J. B. Watson

267. Who said, “Emotions are nothing but intensified feelings arising from sensations within the body?

(a) Wilhelm Wundt

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) William James

268. The important core of emotion is:

(a) Attention

(b) Feeling

(c) Perception

(d) Intelligence

269. Titchener pointed out two methods of studying emotion and these are:

(a) Methods of Impression and Methods of Expression

(b) Methods of Observation and Experimen­tation

(c) Methods of Introspection and Observa­tion

(d) Methods of Case Study and Introspection

270. Who said “Psychology is the Science of mental life, both of phenomena and of their conditions”?

(a) William James

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) J. B. Watson

271. According to James, psychology is a part of:

(a) Social Science

(b) Natural Science

(c) Sociology

(d) Physiology

272. James defined Psychology as the Science of:

(a) Unconscious

(b) Mental Life

(c) Subconscious

(d) Soul

273. The importance of Experimental method was recognized by:

(a) Wilhelm Wundt

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) E. B. Tichener

(d) William James

274. Comparative Method is a subsidiary to the method of:

(a) Case Study

(b) Biography

(c) Observation and Experimentation

(d) Introspection and Experimentation

275. The difficulties and problems encountered in the execution of the methods in psychology are called “snares” by:

(a) William James

(b) E.B. Titchener

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) J.B. Watson

276. When an experimenter generally tends to read the perceptions more than what is really present there, it is called:

(a) Psychologist’s fallacy

(b) Experimental Error

(c) Data Error

(d) Data fallacy

277. James “Psychologist’s Fallacy” is somewhat similar to Titchener’s:

(a) Stimulus Error

(b) Response Error

(c) Context Error

(d) Self Error

278. In advocating the doctrine of instinct, James was influenced by:

(a) Charles Darwin

(b) C. G. Lange

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) C. G. Jung

279. For James, Self was equivalent to what we today call as:

(a) Person

(b) Personality

(c) Soul

(d) Mind

280. G. S. Hall was a “Hybrid psychologist” having features of both:

(a) James and Wundt

(b) Freud and Adler

(c) Jung and Wood Worth

(d) James and Titchener

282. Functionalism was one of the most flexible schools of:

(a) German Psychologists

(b) American Psychologists

(c) Swiss Psychologists

(d) British Psychologists

283. In 1885, Spencer published his famous book:

(a) Primer of Psychology

(b) An outline of Psychology

(c) Principles of Psychology

(d) Experimental Psychology

284. For Spencer, evolution involved a change from indefinite homogeneity having a continuous process of integration and differentiation. Such changes are nothing a continuous process of:

(a) Maladjustment

(b) Adjustment

(c) Creativity

(d) Intelligence

285. The higher an organism was on the evolutionary ladder, the more complex and differentiated were its:

(a) Responses

(b) Stimuli

(c) Personality

(d) Reflexes

286. The simplest responses are inflexible and represent a total adjustment to environment these are called:

(a) Creativity

(b) Reflexes

(c) Stimuli

(d) Feelings

287. Higher animals show complex reflex actions which are called:

(a) Instincts

(b) Libido

(c) Feelings

(d) Images

288. Charles Darwin was regarded as evolu­tionary forerunner of:

(a) Functionalism

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Dynamism

289. Sir Francis Galton was very much inspired by his cousin Darwin in studying the role of hereditary factors in:

(a) Animals

(b) Human beings

(c) Birds

(d) Tigers

290. Galton’s book “Hereditary Genius” was published in 1869 and it contained the studies of individual differences in:

(a) Intelligence

(b) Perception

(c) Learning

(d) Memory

291. Functionalism reached its peak of popularity under the leadership of:

(a) Harvey Carr

(b) William James

(c) James R. Angell

(d) John Dewey

292. R. S. Woodworth brought Functionalism to Columbia University although his psy­chology departed enough from the functio­nalist’s position to develop a new system called:

(a) Analytical Psychology

(b) Individual Psychology

(c) Hormic Psychology

(d) Dynamic Psychology

293. Who has launched “Progressive Education Movement” and applied pragmatism in Education?

(a) John Dewey

(b) J. R. Angell

(c) Harvey Carr

(d) William James

294. Who defined perception as the cognition of something in relation to some act of adjustment?

(a) J. R. Angell

(b) Harvey Carr

(c) John Dewey

(d) William James

295. Harvey Carr considered emotion as:

(a) Organic Adjustment

(b) Reflex Action

(c) Brain disorder

(d) Birth trauma

296. Who considered thinking as an apprehension of the situations objects that are not immediately present in the environment?

(a) William James

(b) Harvey Carr

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) E. B. Titchener

297. Harvey Carr regarded attention, motives and learnings to be the three primary agents of:

(a) Behaviour Selection

(b) Dualistic Restriction

(c) Cognition

(d) Perception

298. Harvey A. Carr is an important represen­tative of:

(a) Functional Psychology

(b) Structural psychology

(c) Gestalt psychology

(d) Psychoanalysis

299. Associationism was never a formal school of psychology. It existed as a movement both prior and subsequent to the emergence of the experimental psychology of:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) Harvey Carr

(d) Wilhelm Wundt

300. In a formal sense, Associationism started with:

(a) John S. Mill

(b) David Hartley

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) J. B. Watson

Answers

201. (c) 202. (a) 203. (b) 204. (d) 205. (b) 206. (b) 207. (c) 208. (b) 209. (a) 210. (b) 211. (a) 212. (a) 213. (b) 214. (a) 215. (b)216. (a) 217. (a) 218. (b) 219. (c) 220. (c) 221. (a) 222. (b) 223. (a) 224. (d) 225. (b) 226. (a) 227. (d) 228. (b) 229. (a) 230. (b) 231. (d) 232. (b) 233. (b) 234. (b) 235. (b) 236. (a) 237. (b) 238. (a) 239. (b) 240. (d) 241. (a) 242. (b) 243. (a) 244. (b) 245. (a) 246. (a) 247. (b) 248. (a) 249. (a) 250. (c) 251. (d) 252. (a) 253. (c) 254. (a) 255. (b) 256. (b) 257. (a) 258. (a) 259. (a) 260. (c) 261. (a) 262. (b) 263. (a) 264. (a) 265. (b) 266. (a) 267. (b) 268. (b) 269. (a) 270. (a) 271. (b) 272. (b) 273. (d) 274. (d) 275. (a) 276. (a) 277. (a) 278. (a) 279. (b) 280. (a) 281. (b) 282. (b) 283. (c) 284. (b) 285. (a) 286. (b) 287. (a) 288. (a) 289. (b) 290. (a) 291. (a) 292. (d) 293. (a) 294. (b) 295. (a) 296. (b) 297. (a) 298. (a) 299. (d) 300. (b)

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